POLI 100 Chapter 1.docx

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Political Science
POLI 100
Christopher Erickson

Chapter 1Politics and the State The Political Importance of the State State a monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force in enforcing its order within a given territorial areaThe Sovereign State State as highest form of authority in a given territory no external challenge to it Theoretically above challenge both internally domestically and externally internationally ththFirst sovereign states emerged in Europe in the 15 and 16 centuries replacing the feudal societies in which authority had been shared between the aristocracy emperors kings princes dukes etc and the Roman Catholic Church Most countries now make use of the sovereign state model the only stateless societies are small communities of nomadic peoples In constitutional theory the state is sovereign however in practice it inevitably faces challenges from both inside and outside its borders and as a result the states autonomy ability of a rational person to make informed unforced decisions is limited A Typology of the State States can be categorized based on how much they intervene in society and the economy States can be classified according to how subject the leaders are to the will of the people NightWatchman State Sees the role of the state as minimal Typically restricted to the provision of security and property rights Allows the economic market to operate relatively unhinderedPrimary duty is to protect the individuals right to life liberty and property against any threat external or internal Favoured by both classical Liberals and New Right Thinkers thPlayed a large part in shaping 19 century politics not only in Britain but throughout the Western countries including Canada and the United States Continues to be popular with libertarians as they also believe that the states role should be minimalMost are very critical of large state bureaucracies Object to the maintenance of a large military force especially when it is deployed tofight overseas believe that the only time a military force should be used is in selfdefence when the country in under attackDo not approve of welfare state programs such as universal health care Believe that local government and private enterprise are the most efficient providers of the services that citizens really want and need The basis of libertarianism is an almost utopian belief that individuals know what is best for themselves and are capable of living their lives ethically and responsibility without undue interference from government The minimal state is an ideal that has probably never existed in reality Closest approximation to it was Hong Kong under British colonial rule when government activity was limited to basic services such as policing and garbage removal Developmental StateGovernment and private businesses partner together to promote economic development Associated not just with economic development but with government efforts to secure greater social and economic equalityApproach has been particularly prevalent in East Asia where it has developed rapidly since 1945Liberal Democracy
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