Chapter 4: Freedom and Justice
Constraints of Freedom:
- freedom is the absence of constraints
Non Democratic Government
- What the correlation between freedom and democracy?
- How far does government interfere with us?
- Examples: Imprisonment and slavery
- constrain of freedom – physically stops us
- Unfair or discriminatory laws included here – ie death penalty
- physical impairments stop us from doing what we want
- Includes situations that are beyond the control of human agency (agency = imp’t in determining
- what about a disabled who uses a wheelchair? What’s the freedom?
- Freedom justified on how rational we are
- ie. Restrictions on freedom of children with dementia are justified in pursuit of other goals –
protecting them and keeping them safe
- Psychological restrictions – influences by external behaviors
- Government can help freedom – ie. Creating basic standards of living so that those who are under
can receive welfare (Canada)
Negative and Positive Freedom
- Locke “need to be free from government”
- Rousseau “government has an obligation to provide citizens with decent level of living”
- Negative Liberty = “Freedom From” / area of control
- Positive Liberty = “Freedom to” / source of control
- US Constitution = Negative Liberty: Bill of rights gives priority to individual’s autonomy (pursue own
- Negative and Positive Liberty are protected by UN ; International Covenant on Civil and Political
Rights & International Covenant on economic, social, and cultural rights. (1966)
- Promote equality to limited extent but still give liberty.
Is Freedom Special?
- What is our assessment of freedom? Why is it value so highly? Freedom and Cultural Pluralism
- Cultural pluralism: situations in which different cul