Own Reading On the Genealogy of Morality by Nietzsche (Autosaved).docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLI 240
Professor
Christopher Erickson
Semester
Winter

Description
Later on, compare notes with ppoint slides and make your own analysis Don’t forget to read the commentaries by others Own Reading: On the Genealogy of Morality [BOOK 1] - Definition of values done the noble, the mighty, the high-placed and the high-minded  These people judge the actions and put certain standards on it  They “create values and give these values names”  At first, this method is useful for the recipients to use on others. However, as this practice continue, people start to accept the method as something natural. Nonetheless, its usefulness largely belong to the person who introduce this concept. It may not have any use at all  “the origin of language itself as a manifestation of the power of the rulers”  Herd instinct - The usefulness of an idea begins to fade because it has become something normally accepted, so, it becomes part of us  Instead of feeling conscious about the idea, we forget its presence - Defining good:  The idea of good was traced to be tightly related to the “noble, aristocratic in social terms”  Known as spiritually noble, aristocratic, spiritually highminded, spiritually privileged  Automatically, this implies the common, plebeian, low as the defining the concept of bad  Evidence: origin of the German word schlecht  bad which is identical to schlicht  plain,simple etc p. 13 - Priestly aristocracies  N views it as unhealthy - How different classes/individuals get what they want  Chivalric-aristocratic: through physical-based means, they engage in activities that involve war, adventure, hunting, dancing, jousting, and anything that contains strong, free, happy action  Priestly-aristocratic: they are the most powerless  from this powerlessness their hatred build up, priests are the greatest haters in world history and the most intelligent, nobody’s intelligence stands against the intelligence of priestly revenge. - Jews hatred:  Reject the aristocratic value which equates: good = noble = powerful = beautiful = happy = blessed  Instead the Jews created the concept of: only those who suffer are good, only the poor, the powerless, the lowly are good  As for the noble (aristocratic), they are: wicked, cruel, lustful, insatiate, godless - Jews’ origin of hatred:  Through their hatred, the Jews created new ideals or beliefs  E.g: Jesus of Nazareth – the concept of salvation seduces people to believe in those :Jewish values and innovative ideals” - Ressentiment:  Triggers the slaves’ revolt in morality  Ressentiment is a reaction when the persons are oppressed by external stimuli  such that they don’t get what they want  The noble, they get what they want without using the methods of deception, unlike the weak m the weak may pretend to do good when in truth, they have no good intention at all Later on, compare notes with ppoint slides and make your own analysis Don’t forget to read the commentaries by others  Noble men: confident and frank  Men of ressentiment: neither upright nor naïve, nor honest and straight. Secretive and loves secret  N’s conclusion: Men of ressentiment will end up cleverer than the noble men - Hesiod’s dilemma: his attempt to demonstrate culture in gold, silver and iron  Eras of heroes and demigods from Troy and Thebes  Iron era: descendants of the down-trodden, robbed, ill-treated. Iron era is cold, cruel, lacking feeling and conscience, crushing everything and coating with blood - Question: nihilism? - The lamb example:  Eagles are prey and lambs are predators  The lambs resent the eagles for eating them but what can the eagles do? Their diet is naturally meat.  But, the eagles can be blamed if they have the ability of the strong are free to be weak which means they have the ability to eat something else other than the lambs - How ideals are fabricated on the Earth  Inevitable position of having to wait: are called patience  Inability to take revenge: is called not wanting to take revenge / forgiveness with the mindset, they don’t what they do, but we know what they are doing!  Nietzsche calls this fabrication of ideals as “stink of lies” - Nietzsche’s skepticism on the weaklings  They want to be powerful too one day  through the Kingdom of God (N seems to refer to the priests)  This is achieved by creating an illusion of pain as something blissful, something that should be felt to enjoy and eternal pleasure - Unmensch (brute) and Ubermensch (superman) - Philosopher has to solve the problem of values and that he has to decide on the rank order of values - The original noble is strong but at the same time stupid, but priestly noble: is weak but clever (he can easily manipulate the population)  Priest is the most dangerous enemy, they develop the concept of soul [Slave Revolt in Morality] - Created by Jewish tradition  it was mostly famous during the peak of Christianity [Ressentiment] Among Priest Among the Noble - Immediately release it - Napoleon is a synthesis of brute man and superman  during Napoleon is said the re- emergence of the Noble (or known as the New Man) Later on, compare notes with ppoint slides and make your own analysis Don’t forget to read the commentaries by others Who is the Artist referred by Nietzsche? Paul Ree’s The Origin of the Moral Sensation Schopenhauer Debtor-Creditor The Noblest Luxury Beasts of prey The hanged man N on scchopenhaur Role of priests Will to nothingness/the last will of man/nihilism Herd Mentality Philosophy and Aesticism Nietzsche as an Ubermensch Slave’s Morality Guilt and Bad Conscience [BOOK 2] – Guilt, bad conscience and related matters - Forgetfulness: an active ability to suppress the word  Forgetfulness doesn’t apply when: 1) a promise is made 2) passive inability to get rid of an impression once it has made its impact, 3) an active desire not to let go, 4) a desire to keep on desiring = will’s memory - Morality of custom  Is it that N put the requirement to make promises? P. 37 refer to Chris’ slides - Conscience  It is about the ability to be answerable to oneself proudly and to have the prerogative (the right) to say yes to oneself - How to make a memory stays in oneself?  Other than the technique of mnemonics, pain can make a person remembers a memory strongly  psychology’s suggestion - “pain was the most powerful aid to mnemonics”  When men want to make a memory memorable, it is done through torturing methods: sacrifices and forfeits (sacrifice of the first-borns belong here), mutilations, the cruellest rituals of all religion cults  German’s torturing method: 1) stoning, 2) breaking on the wheel, quartering ( impaling, ripping apart and trampling to death by horses), boiling of the criminal in oil or wine, popular flaying (cutting strips), cutting out flesh from the breast, coating the wrong-doer with honey and leaving him to the flies in the scorching sun (p. 39) - Consciousness of guilt  Derived from the concept of debt  contractual relationship between creditor and debtor - The relationship between a debtor and a creditor Later on, compare notes with ppoint slides and make your own analysis Don’t forget to read the commentaries by others  To make a promise: the person who makes the promise has to have a memory made for him  Debtor has will pawn his possessions by forming a contract (such as his wife, his freedom, his peace in after life etc) in exchange for: 1) Inspiring confidence that the promise of repayment will be honoured 2) Giving a guarantee of the solemnity and sanctity of his promise 3) Etching the duty and obligation of repayment into his conscience  As the result, the creditor can do whatever he pleases on the body of the debtor - N’s questions: “To what extent can suffering be a compensation for debts?” “How can it be gratifying to make someone suffer?” - “Pleasure in cruelty does not really need to have died out”  Have to sublimated  transformed into a spiritual experience  Ressentiment?: What fuels resent is not the suffering but the pointlessness in suffering (also refers to the concept of Christianity)  Nietzsche reiterates on the concept of how the means where the weak becomes stronger is created  the priestly noble  it enables the justification to suffer under the pretext of XXX - The effect of not fulfilling a social contract:  Considered as breaking the law as a whole.  Also considered that you hurt the creditor  As the result, your punishment consists of you being ousted from your city - When the city grows larger  The offence of an individual ceases to be taken seriously  insignificant threat to the stability of a nation  The creditor become more humane as their wealth increases  Justice which was originally, “everything can be paid off, everything must be paid off” – becomes unfulfilled for the poor - Refuting Duhring: proposed actual active emotions such as lust for mastery, greed and the like. Also, proposed that the seat of justice is found in the territory of reactive sentiment. But, Nietzsche counters: the last territory to be conquered by the spirit of justice is that of reactive sentiment.  Man of ressentiment has the invention of bad conscience  The noble who is usually stronger, more courageous, aggressive has a clearer eye and a better conscience - “the stronger power can be seen looking for means of putting an end to the senseless ravages of ressentiment amongst those inferior to it”. This is done by lifting the object of ressentiment out of the hands of revenge by:  Substituting for revenge, a struggle against the enemies of peace and order  Working out compensation, suggesting, sometimes enforcing it  Promoting certain equivalences for wrongs into a norm which ressentiment from now on has to take into account  All of these are done by creating a legal system - N’s take on a legal system: “ the imperative declaration of what counts as permissible in their eyes, as just, and what counts as forbidden, unjust”  So, N said that the concepts of just and unjust are introduced when the legal system is established  “A system of law conceived as sovereign and general, not as a means for use in the fight between units of power but as a means against fighting in general” - Origin and purpose of punishment Later on, compare notes with ppoint slides and make your own analysis Don’t forget to read the commentaries by others  For some people, the obvious purpose of a thing, its utility, form and shape, are its reason for existence, the eye is made to see, the hand to grasp  naturally, punishment is thought to be used as bringing punishment  Every time something grows, the meaning of its micro units changes - Elaboration on punishment  2 aspects: 1) relative permanence (a certain strict sequence of procedures) , 2) fluidity its meaning (Sinn), purpose and expectation, which is linked to the carrying out of such procedures  The uncertain meaning of punishment is demonstrated in the following list: 1) As a means of rendering harmless, of preventing further harm 2) As payment of a debt to the creditor in any form (even one of emotional compensation) 3) As a means of isolating a disturbance of balance, to prevent further spread of the disturbance 4) As a means of inspiring the fear of those who determine and execute punishment. Punishment as a sort of counter-balance to the privileges which the criminal has enjoyed up till now 5) As a sort of counter-balance to the privileges which the criminal has enjoyed up till now 6) As a rooting-out of degenerate elements (sometimes a whole branch, as in Chinese law: whereby it becomes a means of keeping the race pure or maintaining a social type) 7) As a festival, in the form of violating and mocking an enemy, once he is finally conquered 8) As an aide memoire, either for the person suffering the punishment – so called reform or for those who see it carried out 9) As payment of a fee stipulated by the power which protects the wrongdoer from the excess of revenge 10)As a compromise with the natural state of revenge, in so far as he latter is still nurtured and claimed as a privilege by more powerful clans
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