Francis fukuyama: liberalism defeats communism, history can no longer be interpreted according to grand ideological narrative, this is where postmodernism comes in. Pre-modernity ancient 1500"s: belief that there"s a truth that"s provided & controlled by authority. Create need for prince: history repeating itself in cyclical manner you can have level of control, that"s why machiavelli is seen as incorporating pre-modern & modern thinking. Pro: celebration of difference & diversity, corrective for some of the excesses of modernity, living differently thanks to the ability to perceive the world differently. Con: deconstruction = destruction, too oppositional, offers no alternative, relativistic. Mill: argues women should have same political rights as men: organized feminist movement began in 1850 in britain. Third wave: focuses on gender violence & derogatory terms. Philosophical realm: reformists: take anthropocentric view of the world, radicals: adopt ecocentric world view that sees nature as having moral worth, within european traditions of philosophy, ecocentrism is difficult to justify.