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Psychology 100 Ch 3.doc

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 100
Catherine Rawn

 explain the role of biology in the discipline of psychology.  describe how biological psychology helps us understand phenomena like love.  identify the parts of a neuron.  describe the process of neuronal communication.  compare and contrast “graded potentials” versus “all or none responses.” _____________________________________________________________________  Image sensed by your eye, triggered neurons  Neurons fired to visual cortex to perceive shapes  to association cortex to figure out what shapes are  Neurons fired to amygdala  feel fear  Neurons fired to hypothalamus  autonomic NS response increased heart rate…  Neurons fired in prefrontal cortex  controlled thoughts: Wait a second, it’s only an image, calm down… __________________________________________________________________________________________  Brain regions especially active  In romantic partner condition only!  Reward processing regions ○ Amygdala (limbic system), parts of prefrontal cortex  Conclusion  When viewing image of romantic partner while in pain, activation of neural reward systems and lower self-reported pain If we want to understand people, we have to understand their biology, too.  Excitatory  Transmitter substance excites post-synaptic neurons  More likely to fire  Inhibitory  Transmitter substance inhibits post-synaptic neuron  Less likely to fire  Activation of the cell body must meet a threshold to fire  Once threshold is reached, fires down whole axon (All or none) ________________________________________________________________________________________________  List and describe key points about major neurotransmitters  List and describe the key functions of the major brain parts, including what would happen if they were damaged  Describe the effects of severing the corpus callosum  Resting potential = -70 mv  AP: electrical impulses that travles down the axons and allow neurons to communicates  Neurotransmitter: chemical messengers specialized for communication and released after synapse.  Absolute refractory period: ap is impossible Category/ Type NT’s Name Key facts to remember Monoamines Norepinephrine Low levels in mood disorders; Increases attention to environment Monoamines Dopamine Involved in movement, attention, learning, reinforcement... Low levels  Parkinson’s Very high levels related to schizophrenia (e.g., hallucinations) play a role in moving and reward Monoamines Serotonin Low levels in mood disorders; Regulation: mood, eating, sleep, arousal, pain How do drugs affect synaptic transmission? Three Rs: Release, receptors, reuptake 1. Stimulate or inhibit release of neurotransmitters  E.g., heroin stimulates dopamine release (reinforcing)  Stimulate or block postsynaptic receptors  E.g., alcohol partially deactivates glutamate receptors  Inhibit reuptake  E.g., meth & cocaine on dopaminergic neurons The _sympathetic___ nervous system is to excitement as the _parasympathetic___ nervous system is to relaxation.  Glia/Glial cells: support cells that form myelin and blood brain barrier, respond to injuries and remove debris.  Blood Brain barrier: glial cells forming a fatty coating that prevent certain substance form entering the brain.  Endorphin reduces pain 1. Primary motor cortex -> action  Primary sensory cortex -> sensing the inside and outside world 2. Primary somatosensory cortex 3. Primary visual cortex 4. Primary auditory cortex 5. Association cortex -> between sensation and action  List and describe the key functions of the major brain parts  Describe the effects of severing the corpus callosum  Summarize current research-based thinking on hemispheric lateralization  Discuss how brain damage can teach us about brain function.  Differentiate Broca’s aphasia and Wernike’s aphasia in terms of brain regions involved and Motor association cortex: planning body movement. Primary motor cortex: plan and execute movements Primary somatosensory cortex: receive data about sensation Somatosensory association cortex: integrates sensory information from the primary somatosensory cortex (temperature, pressure, etc.) to construct an understanding of the object being felt. 5senses Auditory association cortex: analyze data about sound so we can recognize the words
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