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PSYC 100 - 2 Research Methods.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 100

AP Psychology Research Methods Basic Research – explores questions of interest, but not intended to have immediate, real-world applications Applied Research – clear, practical applications to solve practical problems Scientific Method Theory – an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations. - Organizing and linking observed facts Hypothesis – a testable prediction often implied by a theory Operational definition – a statement of the procedures used to define research variables. - Set parameter of the experiment Replication – repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. Hindsight bias – the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. - ‘I-knew-it-all-along’ phenomenon Goal of research – to describe, predict, and explain behaviour Research that Describes only Case study – observing one person in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles - Can suggest hypotheses for further study; Individual cases can suggest fruitful ideas Naturalistic observation – observing/recording behaviour w/o trying to manipulate and control the situation Survey – looks at many cases in less depth, asks people to report their behaviour or opinions. - A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviours of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them. - Subtle changes in the order or wording of questions can have major effects Population – all of the people in a particular group from which a sample may be drawn Random sample – a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion Generalizability (external validity) – extent to which results of a study can be applied to the outside world False consensus effect –tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs/behaviours AP Psychology - Ex. vegetarians will think more people are vegetarians than will meat-eaters Social Desirability Bias – tendency of subjects to present themselves in a socially desirable light Research that Describes and Predicts behaviour Correlation –relationship between 2 variables without trying to determine causality or manipulate - Help us predict, restrain the illusions of our flawed intuition. - Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause-effect relationship, but it does not prove causation Positive correlation: 2 sets of scores tend to rise or fall together (ex. height and weight) Negative correlation: two things relate inversely (ex. toothbrushing↑, tooth decay ↓) - A weak correlation, indicating little/no relationship, has a coefficient near 0 Scatterplot – graphed cluster of dots, each which represents the values of two variables Illusory correlation – the perception of a relationship where none exists Confirmation bias – a tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions Overconfidence – the tendency to be more confident than correct; think we know more than we do Research that Describes, Predicts, Explains behaviour True Experiment – Research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variable) in order to observe the effect on some behaviour or mental process (dependent variable) Independent variable – the experimental factor that is manipulated - The variable whose effect is being studied. Dependent variable – the outcome factor - The variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. Operational definitions – specific statements describing how the IV is manipulated, how the DV is measured Random assignment – assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different
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