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PSYC 100 - 8 Motivation and Emotion.docx

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PSYC 100
Peter Graf

Motivation and Emotion Motivational Concepts Motivation – the need or desire that energizes behaviour and directs it toward a goal Instinct – a complex behaviour that has a fixed pattern throughout a species and is unlearned; Darwin people believed all human behaviour was controlled by instincts Drive-reduction theory – theory that a physiological need (hunger, thirst, sex) creates an aroused state of tension (drive) that motives an organism to satisfy that need NEED (food)  DRIVE (hunger) DRIVE-REDUCING BEHAVIOURS (eating) Homeostasis "staying the same”– tendency to maintain a balanced, constant internal state; body chemistry always wants to remain at a certain level; (ex. Body's temperature regulating system) Arousal theory –motivated behaviours increase arousal; curiosity-driven behaviours suggest too little/too much stimulation can motivate people to seek an optimum level of arousal Optimum arousal – when all biological needs are met; includes curiosity-driven behaviours Yerkes-Dodson law states that we usually perform most activities best when moderately aroused, and efficiency of performance is usually lower when arousal is either low or high. Incentive Theory – positive/negative environmental stimulus may motivate behaviour (ex ppl have iPods) Hierarchy of needs – Maslow’s pyramid of human needs; some motives are more compelling than others Hunger Glucose – blood sugar that serves as a major energy source for body tissues; low levels = feel hungry Orexin – blood-glucose is low, lateral hypothalamus releases orexin, makes us more hungry Lateral hypothalamus – ‘hunger center’ of the brain; when blood glucose low, lateral hypothalamus kicks in, releases orexin, feel hungry Ventromedial hypothalamus – ‘satiety center’, decreases hunger; blood glucose high (after eating), ventromedial hypothalamus kicks in, no longer feel hungry Insulin –released from pancreas; blood glucose rises, released to allow glucose to move from blood to tissues Set Point – present natural body weight; determined by number of fat cells body falls below this weight, increase in hunger, lowered metabolic rate act to restore lost weight Basal Metabolic rate – body’s resting rate of energy expenditure Eating Disorder Anorexia nervosa – an eating disorder in which a person drops significantly below normal weight Bulimia nervosa – an eating disorder characterized overeating followed by vomiting or excessive exercise; binging and purging episodes Sexual Motivation Sexual response cycle – the 4 stages of sexual responding as described by Masters and Johnson 1. Excitement, 2. Plateau, 3. Orgasm, 4. Resolution Refractory period – a resting period for male after orgasm; man can’t achieve another orgasm for few days Sexual disorders – a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal/functioning; includes premature ejaculation in men and orgasmic dysfunction in women Estrogens – sex hormone secreted more by females; peak during ovulation Testosterone – sex hormone; higher levels found in males; increases sexual arousal Sexual orientation – an enduring sexual attraction toward members of one's own sex (homosexual) or the other sex (heterosexual) Brain structure differences – hypothalamic brain cluster larger in straight men 1. Corpus callosum larger in gay men Genetic influences – shared sexual orientation higher among twins Prenatal hormones – hormones in womb may change brain structure-influence sexual orientation Others – spatial abilities, fingerprint ridge counts, auditory system, body size, gender nonconformity, age of male puberty, handedness, occupational preferences, etc. Need to Belong Affiliation Needs – need to fee
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