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PSYC 100 - 13 Treatment of Abnormal Behaviour.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 100

AP Psychology Treatment of Abnormal Behaviour Psychotherapy – the treatment of behavioural and emotional disorders using psychological techniques Psychiatrists – medical doctors; can prescribe medication and perform surgery Clinical psychologists –doctoral degree; different therapeutic approaches depending on training & diagnosis Psychoanalysis – Freud Goal: Bring repressed motives, desires, impulses, conflicts into consciousness so that patient can deal with them (self-insight) + interpretations by the therapist Cause: unconscious conflicts Method: • Hypnosis – altered state of consciousness; less likely to repress troubling thoughts • Free association – say whatever comes to mind without thinking; we constantly censor what we say • Dream analysis • Interpretations by the therapist • Symptom substitution – after a person is successfully treated for one psychological disorder, person deigns to experience a new psychological problem • Resistance – the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-provoking feelings & experiences • Manifest content – surface meaning • Latent content – underlying meaning • Transference – patients begin to have strong feelings toward their therapists • Catharsis – release of emotional tension after remembering or reliving an emotionally charged experience from the past – relief of anxiety Humanistic  • Non-directive – not tell clients what to do, help them choose a course of action for themselves  “Person­centered therapy” – Carl Rogers Goal: help people to understand and accept themselves; self-actualize, self-awareness, self- acceptance Method: • Active listening – empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates and clarifies o with a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth • Unconditional positive regard – acceptance & support of a patient regardless of what he says/does • Self-actualization – reach one’s highest potential • Free will – capable of controlling their own destinies AP Psychology • Determinism – people have no influence over what happens to them; choices predetermined by forces outside of their control “Gestalt therapy” – Fritz Perls Goal: get in touch with their whole selves; integrate actions, feelings, thoughts into a harmonious whole • Form a therapy where the therapist emphasizes the wholeness of the personality and attempts to reawaken people’s emotions in the here-and-now (importance of present) • Speak in first person (ex. “I choose” not “I have to”; “I want” not “I need”) Existential therapies Goal: support clients and help them formulate a vision of their lives as worthwhile Cause: clients having lost or failed to develop sense of lives’ purpose Behaviour therapy –applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviours Exposure therapies – behavioural techniques that treat anxieties by exposing people (imagination/actuality) to the things they fear/avoid Classical Conditioning • Counterconditioning (Mary Cover Jones) – a behaviour therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviours o Unpleasant conditioned response is replaced with a pleasant one o based on classical conditioning and includes exposure therapy/aversive conditioning • Aversive conditioning – a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behaviour • Systematic desensitization (anxiety)– a type of counterconditioning that teaches client to replace feelings of anxiety with relaxation (ex. Breathing exercises, meditation) o Anxiety hierarchy – rank-ordered list of what the client fears o In vivo desensitization – confronts actual feared objects/situations o Covert desensitization – client imagines the fear-inducing stimuli • Flooding (phobias/anxiety) have client address most frightening scenario first Operant Conditioning • Behavioral modification – select a goal, receives small reward for each step until goal achieved • Token economy – people earn a token for exhibiting a desired behaviour and can later exchange them for various privileges/treats Cognitive therapy – Aaron Beck – (depression) therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking/acting, thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions Goal: change a person’s irrational thoughts and perceptions in order to change behaviour • Cognitive triad – people’s beliefs about themselves, their worlds, and their futures AP Psychology Cognitive­behavio
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