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Chapter 6

PSYC 100 Ch. 6 Textbook Notes.docx

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PSYC 100
Samuel Reed

CHAPTER 6: LEARNING - Learning: Changes in behavior or knowledge that take place after one’s experience - Supertitions: A behavior that occurred as a result of obtaining a reward after engaging in a behavior - Operant conditioning: Learning connections made between events that occurred in an organism’s environment. explains tolerance - classical conditioning may also produce fetishes for inanimate objects 1.3.D Conditioning and Drug Effects - the CCR helps to maintain homeostasis (internal balance) in physiological processes - the drug administering process will eventually become the Conditioned Stimuli (CS); stopping from taking drug will cause the withdrawal effect - As the drug is administered more and more often, and the CCR grows in the strength, the attenuation of the drug becomes more pronounced -- this occurs when the CCR strengthen and they neutralize more of the drug’s effect, they produce drug user’s unresponsiveness towards the drug (drug tolerance) 1.4 Basic Processes in Classical Conditioning - conditioned response are reflexive and difficult to control 1.4.AAcquisition: Forming New Responses - Acquisition: the initial stage of learning something Stimulus contiguity (degree of sameness) - stimuli are contiguous if they occur together in time and space - theorists: contiguity alone doesn’t necessitate the process of conditioning - Instead: stimuli that are novel, unusual, intense have more potential to be the CS because they stand out more < not everything paired together will emit CS, the one that stand out will! 1.4.B Extinction: Weakening Conditioned Responses - extinction: the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency -- method: the consistent presentation of the CS without the US (bell w/o meat) -- example: Pavlov only present the tone without the meat and the dog’s salivating reduced over the time 1.4.C Spontaneous Recovery: Resurrecting Responses - Spontaneous recovery: the resurrection of a conditioned response tendency after a period of nonexposure to the CS (response to bell after so long never been exposed) -- method: an exposure to the CS after a period of nonexposure brings back the conditioned response tendency reaction (CR back alive) - nonetheless, the reaction is lower than the previous continuos exposure - Renewal effect: if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was acquired, the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place << so you make the effect disappear in other place and then make the effect appear in the original place of conditioning - significance: extinction somehow suppresses a conditioned response rather than erasing a learned association. - extinction does not lead to unlearning - renewal effect is one of the reasons why conditioned fears and phobias are difficult to extinguish 1.5 Stimulus Generalization and the Mysterious Case of Little Albert Figure: John B. Watson and Rayson Rayner - it’s considered unethical as the kid is affected emotionally (scare tactic) - Stimulus generalization: when an organism learn to response to stimuli similar to the original stimulus (click sound and stapler sound / bridge and other similar bridge) Law of governing generalization: The similar the stimulus to the original CS, the higher the generalization -Effect: causes panic disorder which is the result of overgeneralization – fear towards one thing is brought to something else similar 1.5.A Stimulus Discrimination - the case applies to same CR but subject respond to similar CS differently- subject might fear the original CS but not to the similar CS - Stimulus discrimination: subject doesn’t give the same response when exposed to stimuli similar to the original stimulus -- this happens when subject has enough experience with both type of stimuli and knows how to differentiate them (like dog waiting for the owner’s car, it knows how to differentiate the owner’s car and car owned by someone else) - Law of Discrimination: the less similar the unconditioned stimuli (UCS) to the conditioned stimuli, the greater the likeliness for the subject to discriminate (distinguish) the UCS -- need a very distinct feature to differentiate the original stimuli with the new UCS 1.5.B Higher-Order Conditioning - occurs when a stimulus that has undergone a conditioning and after that it is paired with something else (another new stimulus), the exposure of the new stimulus will condition it and enable it to obtain similar reaction from the subject - foundation: need an established CR to enable new CS to gain similar CR too - Higher-order definition: when a conditioned stimulus (the new stimulus that has been exposed) is able to function as the unconditioned stimulus (CS >> UCS: it can emits same reaction when UCS is present) -- meat elicits saliva >> clicker exposed with meat powder enables clicker to be the conditioned stimulus >> light exposed with the clicker enables the light to be unconditioned stimulus and then emit the same saliva releasing response 1.5.C Recent Directions in Pavlovian Conditioning - associative learning: role played by amygdala and cerebellum and in Pavlonian fear and eye-blink conditioning respectively - Ap Djiksterhuis (subliminal conditioning) : raise people’s self-esteem level 2. OPERANT CONDITIONING (Instrumental Learning) - the response is dependent on the consequences - figure: B.F Skinner (the proponent of behaviorism) - figure: Edward L. Thorndike : introduced instrumental learning 2.1 Thorndike’s Law of Effect - if response to something leads to satisfying effect (consequences), association between the stimulus and the response increase >> there will be more tendency to repeat the action to earn the reward 2.2 Skinner’s Demonstration: It’s All a Matter of Consequences - trivia: B.F. Skinner is the most famous American psychologist in the world - concept of reinforcement: occurs when events following responses are desirable, so, the tendency to repeat the action is higher 2.3 Terminology and Procedures - operant chamber (Skinner box): box where animal is put, response is recorded, and variables (consequences of the responses) are controlled – what the researchers want to observe - reinforcement contingencies: rules that determine whether the responses demonstrates the occurrence of reinforcement - cumulative recorder: graphic record of responding in the SB in a time period > x- axis: time > y-axis: accumulation of responses (graphic record) -- rapid: steep slope -- slow: shallow slope -- zero: flat curve 2.4 Basic Process in Operant Conditioning 2.4.AAcqu
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