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Chapter 7

PSYC 100 Ch. 7 Textbook Notes.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 100
Samuel Reed

CHAPTER 7: HUMAN MEMORY 1) Getting Information into Memory - semantic: general memory - episodic: personal memory How memory works: - encoding: forming a memory code - storage: maintaining the encoded information in memory over time - retrieval: recalling the memory 1.1 The Role of Attention - Attention: focusing awareness to narrowed range of stimuli or events - Selective attention: critical to everyday functioning - Selection stage: Early, intermediate, late - Early: when the information load is heavy and complex, consume attentional capacity - Late: when the information load is simple and, there is more attentional space to process the meaning of distractions - Figure: Fergus Craik > subjects are forced to divide attention between tasks; large reductions in memory performance > human-brain can handle only one attention-consuming task at a time 1.2 Levels of Processing - Structural encoding: associate with the physical structure of the words - Phonemic encoding: associate with the sound and weight of the words - Semantic encoding : figuring the verbal meaning of the words - as it gets deeper the durability of the words increase - Levels-of-processing theory: deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes 1.3 Enriching Encoding 1.3.A Elaboration - linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding 1.3.B Visual Imagery - associating a word with specific image - but to associate with abstract words is hard compared to concrete words Figure: Paivio > dual-coding theory: memory is enhanced by pairing semantic encoding (verbal meaning) and visual imagery as both lead to recall 1.3.C Self-Referent Encoding - considering memory that is personally relevant > either only remember facts that are relevant to oneself or remember something by associating with daily occurrences in life 2) Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory - Figure: Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin > information-processing theories: divide memory into 3 separate memory stores 2.1 Sensory Memory - storing memory in its original sensory form in a fraction of second - people perceive an afterimage rather than the actual stimulus - don’t really recall 2.2 Short-Term Memory - limited capacity of memory storage that can store unrehearsed memory up to 20 seconds - Ways to store information indefinitely > rehearsal : process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information -- maintenance rehearsal: simply maintaining the information in consciousness -- elaborative rehearsal : increase the probability of retaining the information in the future 2.2.A Durability of Storage - w/o rehearsal, memory in short-term is lost in less than 20 secs 2.2.B Capacity of Storage - Figure: George Miller “The Magical Number Seven” > limited capacity of STM constraints people’s ability to juggle between pieces of information > overestimate because fails to consider the covert rehearsal or chunking by participants - chunk: a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit - experts store information of the area of expertise differently than non-experts 2.2.C Short-Term Memory as “Working Memory” - limited capacity storage that temporarily maintain and store information by providing an interface between perception, memory and action - Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory (4 components) - Phonological Loop: repetitive recitation to remember a phone number - Visuospatial sketchpad: temporarily hold and manipulate images - Central Executive system: controls the deployment of attention, switching the focus attention and divide attention as needed - Episodic buffer: limited-capacity store that allows the various components of working memory to integrate information and that serves as an interface between working-memory and long-term memory 2.3 Long-term Memory - unlimited capacity of storage that can hold memory within an unlimited period of time - figure: Wilder Penfield; did an electrical stimulation of the brain(ESB) > stimulation of the temporal lobe elicit the recall of vivid event of the long past - Flashbulb memories: unusually vivid and detailed recollection of momentous events - Revelation: > Penfield’s patient appeared to be on hallucination and the memories recollected weren’t accurate > Flashbulb memories are neither accurate nor special > Some memory is exceptionally vivid due to one’s emotional attachment to them and they appear to be confident with their accuracy (although it may be inaccurate) 2.4 How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory? 2.4.A Clustering and Conceptual Hierarchies - Clustering: tendency to remember by associating similar items in groups - Conceptual Hierarchies: multilevel classification system based on common properties among items - Figure: Gordon Bower; conceptual hierarchy allows recall immediately 2.4.B Schemas - organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event Result: - people are more likely to recall things that are consistent with their schemas - people are more likely to recall things that violate their schema; as it may attract their attention and deeper processing occurs - Figure: Mark Baldwin of McGill on relational schemas - representation of typical events surrounding interpersonal interactions > this affect one’s belief, view on other people, influence expectations; shape how one processes information 2.4.C Semantic Networks - consists of nodes representing concept joined by pathways that combined related concepts > shorter pathways; stronger linkage - Figure: Collin and Loftus - when people think about a word, their thoughts usually go to the related words > spreading activation within a semantic network 2.4.D Connectionist Networks and Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Models - parallel-distributed-processing: human brains depend on this processing to process same information simultaneously across the network of neurons > assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks -interconnected computational network resembles neural networks - node’s level of activation: depends on the weight of the information that balances between excitatory and inhibitory inputs from many other units >> specific memory correspond to particular patterns of activation in these networks How Connectionist Model is different than Semantic Network - Semantic: nodes represent specific concept of specific pieces of knowledge - Connectionist: specific memories depend on the pattern of activation across the network; it works base on the strength of connection > hence, called CONNECTIONISM 3) RETRIEVAL: GETTING INFORMATION OUT OF MEMORY - Figure: Tulving: differentiate between availability and accessibility - information is available but not accessible at that time because the cues used are ineffective 3.1 Using Cues to Aid Retrieval - Figures: Roger Brown and David McNeill - The tip of the tongue phenomenon: temporary inability to recall something that you know accompanied by a feeling that it’s simply out of reach >can be solved by providing cues to oneself - retrieval cues: stimuli that help gain access to your memories > partial recollection helps in steering memory recollection towards the right direction 3.2 Reinstating the Context of an Event - Figure: Tulving introduced encoding specifity principle > memory for information would be better when the conditions during retrieval and encoding were similar - Context cues: help facilitate memory recollection > when people return to their place and reminisce about how the place used to look like > used in legal investigation to trace the sequence of the event > it is state and mood dependent too > if drunken, memory has to be remembered while still drunk 3.3 Reconstructing Memories and the Misinformation Effect - usually, you can’t recall the memory in an exact manner - Sir Frederick Bartlett of Cambridge has student, O.L Zangwill who taught Brenda Milner of McGill > modern schema-based models of memory > War of the Ghosts -- that people tend to sensationalize a story based on their social and cultural influence on memory - Discovered that: > subjects changed the story to fit their schemas > 2 people can interpret an event differently depending on how they label the occurrence. - 1 might say it was a clumsy act and another could say it’s an aggressive act. The way they recall the event would prevail reveal the way they recollect a specific memory -Finding: culture, recent experiences, personality differences and familiarity are among the factors that will affect the gisting and labeling of events and they affect which schemas are used in reconstructing the events - Modern-schema based theories emphasizes on the reconstructive nature of memory - Figure: Elizabeth Loft on the misinformation effect > occurs when witness’s recollection of an event is altered by introducing misleading post-event information - Studies on misleading information Stage 1: Subject view an event Stage 2: Exposed to information about the event Stage 3: Recall of the original event is tested to see if the post-event misinformation altered their memory Significance: Subject will recall it in a distorted manner even though they have been warned of it - immediate recall on witnessed event only increase the misinformation effect - when people retell stories, they tend to make adjustment based on their: goals, audience and social context 3.4 Reality Monitoring and Source Monitoring (The Retrieval Process) - Figure: Marcia Johnson - Reality Monitoring: the process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources (one’s perception of actual event) or internal cues (one’s imagination and thought) - when rich in sensory information, you will remember the sense of doing it - when rich in contextual information, you can visualize yourself doing it - Source Monitoring: it attributes to the origin of the memory > main causation that causes people to reconstruct a memory wrongly - Source Monitoring Errors - when the recall of the source is misattributed to another source The Opposite; - Destination Memory: recalling to whom one has told what > memory for sources of information is better than
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