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Chapter 9

PSYC 100 Ch. 9 Textbook Notes.docx

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PSYC 100
Samuel Reed

CHAPTER 9: INTELLIGENCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING KEY CONCEPTS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING - Psychological test: standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behavior > a kind of measuring tool > used to measure the difference in abilities, aptitudes, interests and aspects of personality > however, as it is based on certain sample, certain test of psycho may not represent your behavior A.1) Principal Types of Tests - What it measures: mental ability test and personality test A.1.1) Mental Ability Tests - Principal subcategories: intelligence test, aptitude test and achievement test Intelligence Test - Measures general mental ability: precisely intellectual potential rather than accumulated knowledge Aptitude Test - asses specific type of mental abilities (similar to intelligence but specific) Achievement Test - Doesn’t measure potential but mastery of various subjects (gauge accumulated knowledge) A.1.2) Personality Tests - measures various aspect of personalities: motives, interests, values, attitudes - also called scale A.2) Standardization and Norms - Standardization: uniform procedures used in administration and scoring of a test - Test Norms: how the score obtained ranked in relation to other scores on that test - Percentile score: indicate the percentage of people who have scored at or below one’s score > if you are placed at the 70 percentile in depression, it means that you are very depressed (69% of other people is also depressed) - standardization group: sample of people that the norms are based on (to measure what is considered as norm) - separate norms: to interpret many intelligence tests: Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) A.3) Reliability - measurement consistency of a test Approach: test-retest reliability > ask subjects to take a test twice in a separated time - and this test is confirmed by using correlation coefficient > correlation coefficient :numerical index that indicates the degree of relationship between two variables (e.g if x and y are related, they should have high degree of cc) A.4) Validity - ability for the test to measure what it is supposed to measure > test that measures entrance to a high school cant be used to enter the workforce because they measure different things A.4.1) Content Validity (supposed to test what it is supposed to test) - refers to how much the content of the test represents area that it is supposed to cover > e.g: a professor prepares test that doesn’t cover what he thought in class A.4.2) Criterion-Related Validity - relating/comparing the score obtained in a test with another measure > e.g: compare score and comments given on one’s performance in that particular area > If you perform strongly, the correlation between comment and test score should be very high A.4.3) Construct Validity - hypothetical construct: abstract qualities (i.e creativity, intelligence, extraversion etc) - construct validity: the ability for a test to measure the hypothetical construct (the abstract qualities) - the debate of construct validity of intelligence tests is one of the oldest debate B) THE EVOLUTION OF INTELLIGENCE TESTING B.1) Galton’s Studies of Hereditary Genius (1) - Figure: Francis Galton (proponent of genetic inheritance) - Psychological test: standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behavior > a kind of measuring tool > used to measure the difference in abilities, aptitudes, interests and aspects of personality > however, as it is based on certain sample, certain test of psycho may not represent your behavior > invented the concepts of correlation and percentile test scores B.2) Binet’s Breakthrough (2) - Figure: Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon: published useful test for general mental ability > scale was successful because: inexpensive, easy to administer, objective, capable of predicting children’s performance in school - called: Binet-Simon scale > expressed child’s score as mental age or mental level > mental age: the indicator that the child demonstrates capability at the chronological age (actual age) B.3) Terman and the Stanford-Binet (3) - Figure: Lewis Terman > publication ofStanford-Binet Intelligence Scale mentalage x100=IQ - It uses intelligence quotient = chronoligical actual )age - Widely used especially for American school B.4) Weschler’s Innovations - Figure: David Weschler: revised the test to measure adult intelligence - product: Wechler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) > included many items that require non-verbal reasoning - to compare nonverbal and verbal ability,  formalized the computation of separate scores for verbal IQ, performance (nonverbal) IQ and full-scale (total) IQ  removed the calculation of IQ and use normal distribution C) THE DEBATE ABOUT THE STRUCTURE OF INTELLIGENCE - Figure: Charles Spearman - invented factor analysis > factor analysis: measure the correlation of variables with other variables to identify closely related cluster of variables (sort of finding the ideal pair) - all cognitive ability shares an important core factor and labeled the core as g = general mental ability C.1) Exploring Biological Correlates of Intelligence - Figure: L.LThurstone- developed Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) > concludes : intelligence involves multiple abilities and said that Spearman emphasized too much on g - Thurstone outlines intelligence to seven independent factors called primary mental abilities > word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning and memory - Guilford: divided intelligence into 150 separate abilities and ignores g completely - Over the time, for theoretical guidance, researchers turned to model of intelligence which proposes: g should be divided into fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence - Fluid intelligence: involves reasoning ability, memory capacity and speed of information processing - Crystallized intelligence: ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving D) BASIC QUESTIONS ABOUT INTELLIGENCE TESTING D.1) What Do Modern IQ Scores Mean? - Normal distribution: symmetric, bell-shaped curved that represents patterns that are dispersed in the population > discovered by astronomers - David Weschler : recorded raw scores which are then translated into deviation IQ > deviation IQ: use standard deviation as the unit of measurement and locate subject within normal distribution > mean distribution is set at 100 and standard deviation at 15 - modern IQ scores indicate exactly where you fall in the normal distribution of intelligence and it is consistent - advantage of modern IQ test: it translates exactly the same percentile score, regardless of the person’s age group D.2) Do Intelligence Tests Have Adequate Reliability? - Yes - but they are only based on sample behavior and a specific testing may yield an unrepresentative score – variation in examinees’s motivation to sit for the test can produce misleading scores D.3) Do Intelligence Tests Have Adequate Validity? - Yes , by obtaining positive correlation between variables • Figure: Robert Sternberg >3 basic components of intelligence: verbal intelligence, practical intelligence, social intelligence - irrational people, because low rational quotient D.4) Are Individual’s IQ Scores Stable over Time? - during preschool is unstable but gain its stability over time D.5) Do Intelligence Tests Predict Vocational Success? - Suggestions from researchers about whether or not IQ scores are effective predictors of performance within a particular occupation : > substantial correlation of 0.5 between IQ scores and job performance > correlation depends on complexity of the job requirement > association still valid even though workers have more experience at their jobs > measure of specific mental abilities and personality traits are less predictive of job performance that measures of intelligence D.6) Are IQ Tests Widely Used in Other Cultures? - Yes to European and Western culture but little to the Eastern cultures (Japan quite ok) - Flaws: Western IQ tests do not translate well in other language and cognitive frameworks of many non-Western cultures - different cultures have different conceptions of what intelligence is and value different mental skills E) EXTREMES OF INTELLIGENCE E.1) Intellectual Disability - change of terms from feebleminded to mentally deficient to mentally retarded - intellectual disability: subnormal general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive skills originating before 18 - adaptive skills consist of everyday skills: conceptual skills, social skills and practical skills E.1.1) Levels of Intellectual Disability - traditionally classified into 4 levels: mild, moderate, severe, profound > mild disability is hard to distinguish > only 15% diagnosed with intellectual disability show obvious mental deficiencies E.1.2) Origins - Down Syndrome: because inherit extra chromosome - FRM1 contributes to fragile X syndrome (FMS): common cause for hereditary intellectual disability > activation of neural connection irrelevant to the context of task - phenylketonuria: metabolic disorder due to enzyme deficiency leads to intellectual disability if not caught and treated in infancy - hydrocephaly: an excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the skull which destroys brain tissue and causes retardation - also sometimes, from the lower socioeconomic classes E.1.3) Savants - Famous savant: Kim Peek - Characteristics: > enlarged brains with several abnormalities; malformed cerebellum, left hemisphere damage, complete absence of corpus callosum (connects left and right brain hemi) E.2) Giftedness E.2.1) Identifying Gifted Children - mostly effort to identify gifted children relies heavily on IQ scores rather than: creativity, leadership, special talent - schools rely heavily on IQ scores E.2.2) Personal Qualities of the Gifted - usual stereotype: bookworm, emotionally troubled, socially inept - Figure: Lewis Therman study gifted kids > they are above average in height, weight, strength, physical health, emotional adjustment, mental health and social maturity - asserts: moderately gited (IQ 130-150) are very different from profoundly gifted children (IQ above 180). > profoundly gifted: introverted and socially isolated E.2.3) Giftedness and Achievement in Life - concept of giftedness is applied to 2 very different groups: 1) crème of the school , 2) eminent adults who make big contribution in their field - Figure: Joseph Renzulli- rare
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