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Chapter 10

PSYC 100 Ch. 10 Textbook Notes.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 100
Samuel Reed

CHAPTER 10: MOTIVATION AND EMOTION A) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES AND CONCEPTS - Motives: needs, wants, desires and interests that propel people to certain direction - motivation involves goal-directed behavior A.1) Drive Theories - applies the concept of homeostasis - homeostasis: physiological equilibrium or stability to behavior - Drive: an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activity that should reduce the tension > when experiencing a drive, the individuals will involve in the “drive reduction” in order to reduce the tension (e.g: when hungry, you’ll eat something and that’ll restore physio equili) A.2) Incentive Theories - Incentive: external goal that motivates behavior - Push-and-pull model > Drive: uses push (internal push individual’s action) -- the motivation lies within the organism > Incentive: uses pull (the external stimuli pull individual’s action into doing something) -- the motivation lies in the environment -- therefore, incentive theory doesn’t use the principle of homeostasis (which is to achieve a physio equil. within the organism) -- this theory emphasizes on the environmental factor - Expectancy-value Models: one’s motivation to commit an action depends on these > expectancy of one’s attaining the possibility > the value of the desired incentive A.3) Evolutionary Theories - If a particular motive crucial for a species, that is probably because that motive enables the species to reproduce /survive - can be understood through the adaptive theory > e.g: Need for dominance is more important in man because: 1) females may prefer mating with dominant males 2) dominant males may poach from subordinate males 3) dominant males may intimidate male rivals in competition for sexual access 4) dominant males may acquire more resources which increases mating opportunities A.4) The Range and Diversity of Human Motives - usually differentiate between biological motives (from the inside) and social motives (from the outside) > biological needs: limited > sociological needs: unlimited B) THE MOTIVATION OF HUNGER AND EATING B.1) Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger - stomach contraction may cause hunger (but this correlation is not necessarily true) B.1.1) Brain Regulation - originates from hypothalamus: regulate variety of biological needs related to survival - through brain lesioning technique and electrical stimulation,discovered: > dual-centres model of hunger proposes that lateral hypothalamus (LH) and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) > LH and VMH are the on-off switch for hunger However, - arcuate nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus : are believed to play a larger role in the modulation of hunger - arcuate nucleus contain a group of neurons that are sensitive to incoming hunger signals - paraventricular nucleus contain a group of neurons that respond to satiety signals B.1.2) Glucose and Digestive Regulation - Glucose: important source of energy - activity that increases blood glucose level makes feel satiated - activity that decreases blood glucose level makes feel hungry - Glucostatic theory: fluctuations in blood glucoseare monitored in the brain where they influence the experience of hunger - Arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus: sensitive to glucostatic fluctuation that contribute to the modulation of eating B.1.3) Hormonal Regulation - Insuline: hormone secreted by the pancreas, needed when cells extract glucose from the blood > secretion of insulin is associated with increased hunger > also sensitive to the fluctuation of body’s fat stores > w/o insulin, it causes diabetes - Figure: Judith Rodin (mere sight of enticing food can stimulate the secretion of insulin) - Hormones involved in short term regulation of hunger > ghrelin : stomach contracts and promotes hunger > CCK: produces satiety signals when food is consumed (hunger is reduced) > leptin: produced by fat cells and released into bloodstream. Hi fat, hi leptin and doesn’t feel hungry > leptin also tells hypothalamus the level of body fat storage - altogether: insulin, leptin ghrelin, CCK > converge in the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus B.2) Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger Key factors: - availability of food - learned preferences and habits - stress B.2.1) Food Availability and Related Cues - humans and animals eat not to compensate energy deficit. But to fulfill the pleasure of eating - Palatability: the tastier the food, the higher the amount consumed - Quantity available: the more being served, the more being eaten - Variety: the higher the variance, the higher the amount eaten > sensory-specific satiety: incentive reduces when only eat a specific food - Presence of others: people who eat together use each other to guide their food intake BUT it works the opposite way if different sexes eat together Eating is mostly social action and it can be caused by other factors B.2.2) Learned Preferences and Habits - preferences are acquired through learning (what causes something to become habit) - humans do have some innate preferences i.e for sweet tastes present at birth - taste preference: formed through classical conditioning - food preference are a matter of exposure > repeated exposure increases liking B.2.3) Stress and Eating - some think that by eating more, it will make them feel better - studies have shown that stress leads to increased food consumption B.3) Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity - Obesity: the condition of being overweight - Body Mass Index (BMI): weight in kg divided by height (in metres) squared - having obese parents increase the odds of obesity in children - overweight people are vulnerable to: cardiovascular disease, respiratory problems, gallbladder disease, stroke, arthritis, muscle, skeletal pain, cancer - Evolution: eat more because afraid that there might not be any food later B.3.1) Genetic Predisposition - adoptees resemble their biological parents more in terms of BMI - identical twins resemble more than fraternal twins do - weight variation is higher in woman than man > some people have genetic vulnerability to obesity B.3.2) Excessive Eating and Inadequate Exercise - Overweight occurs when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure - technology created also reduces movement B.3.3) Sensitivity to External Cues - Figure: Stanley Schachter > proposed externality hypothesis: extrasensitive to cues that motivate hunger and insensitive to internal physiological signal > normal-weight people are usually motivated by internal physiological signal BUT, - were denied by Jufith Rodin by using the insulin example as the internal signal - revelation: Schachter theory was oversimplified > normative cues: indicators of socially approved food intake: what, when, how much > sensory external cues: characteristics of the food itself such as palatability - Herman and Polivy argued: obese people are sensitive to the sensory external cues B.3.4) The Concept of Set Point - Set-point theory: body monitor fat-cell levels to keep them (and weight) fairly stable > when fat slips below crucial point: feels hungry and metabolism decreases - Settling-point Theory: weight fluctuates around factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditures achieves an equilibrium > weight tends to remain stable if there isn’t any significant changes that influence it - if try to lose weight by making long-term changes, a person can reduce weight B.3.5) Dietary Restraint - uncertainty in dietary restraint contributes to obesity - chronic dieters are restrained eaters- people who consciously try to control their diet and feel guilty when fail BUT they always think about food - when the plan is disrupted, they are stimulated to eat excessively and eat excessively - sometimes, restrained dieters plan a big feast before consume in a big portion B.3.6) Eating Disorders - Anorexia nervosa: young woman starves themselves to death - Bulimia nervosa: young women alternate between binge eating and purging > more prevalent in women than men C) SEXUAL MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOUR C.1) The Human Sexual Response -Figures: William Masters and Virginia Johnson - Propose four cycles of sexual response: > excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution C.1.1) Excitement Phase - Level of physical arousal increases: muscle tension, respiration rate, heart rate, blood pressure - Vasocongestion(engagement of blood vessel) : produces swollen testes and penile erection > for female: swelling and hardening of the clitoris, expansion of the vaginal lips and vaginal lubrication C.1.2) Plateau Phase - physiological arousal occurs at a slower pace - further vasocongestion: tightening of the vaginal entrance, as the clitoris withdraws under the clitoral hood - men: secrete fluid but it’s not ejaculation but it may contain sperm C.1.3) Orgasm Phase -occurs when sexual arousal reaches its peak > releases a series of muscular contraction around the pelvic area > heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure increase sharply - males’ orgasm are accompanied by ejaculation of the seminal fluid Gender differences in orgasm phase - women: multiorgasmic (experience more than one climax in a sexual encounter) > also more likely to engage in sexual intercourse without experiencing orgasm C.1.4) Resolution Phase - reduction in sexual tension is relatively slow and may be unpleasant - men: experience refractory period where they become largely unresponsive to further stimulation > refractory period increases with age C.2) Evolutionary Analyses of Human Sexual Behaviour - Figure: Robert Triver with Parental Investment Theory > depends on what each sex has to invest: time, energy, survival risk - the sex that makes the smaller investment will compete for mating opportunities with the sex that makes larger investment > done by male by mating with as many female as possible AND - the sex with the larger investment will tend to be more discriminating in selecting its partner > females have to invest 9 months in pregnancy and this limits the number of offspring that they can produce > this also discourage them from mating with many males and being selective in mating - males are more willingly to engage in uncommitted sex compared to females C.2.1) Gender Differences in Patterns of Sexual Activity - Men: think about sex more than women do, overestimate female sexual interest in the, subjective rating in sex drive tends to be higher, have more frequent and varied sexual fantasies C.2.2) Gender Differences in Mate Preferences - Female: demand long-term commitment from males > emphasize more on partner characteristics: ambition, income, intelligent, social status - But those preferences are viewed as subconscious preferences that have been hard- wired into the human brain - Male: women who are sexually faithful and capable of nurturing children C.2.3) Criticism and Alternative Explanations - women’s preferences could be the by-product of cultural and economic forces rather than biological imperatives - Counterargument:
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