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Chapter 11

PSYC 100 Ch. 11 Textbook Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Samuel Reed

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CHAPTER 11: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN - sequence: sequence of age-related changes as an individual progresses from birth (conception) to death A) PROGRESS BEFORE BIRTH: PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT 1) Germinal Stage 2) Embryonic Stage 3) Fetal Stage - 1-2 weeks - 2-2months - 2 months until birth - rapid cell divisions (zygotes)- formation of vital organs - month 2 muscles and bones (heart, spine, brain) - 7 day, zygote tries to > fetus capable of physical implant but usually rejected - sensitive period: basic movement physiological structures are - Placenta: formed when being formed - month 3: sex organ zygote is implanted. Allows - final 3 months: brain cells O2 and nutrients to babies - miscarriage may occur at and its bodily waste to their this time multiply , fat deposited, moms respiratory and digestive mature - zygote: one-celled organism formed by the union of sperm and an egg > each cell contains messages from parents that lie in chromosomes > each chromosome houses many genes > genes carry hereditary blueprints - prenatal period: from conception to birth (usually 9-month period) A.1) THE COURSE OF PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT - 3 stages: germinal (first 2 weeks), embryonic (2 weeks to 2 months), fetal stage (two months to birth) A.1.1) GERMINAL STAGE - the first 2 weeks after conception - zygote > rapid cell division > microscopic mass of multiplying cell - on the 7 day, zygote tries to implant itself (for which many are rejected) - during implantation, placenta begins to form - placenta: allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into fetus from the mother’s bloodstream and bodily waste to pass out to the mother A.1.2) EMBRYONIC STAGE - from 2 weeks until 2 months - most of the vital organs and bodily systems begin to form - structures such as heart, brain, spine emerge - about 2.5 cm and begins to look like human - very vulnerable as physiological structures are being formed - also, miscarriage usually occurs during this stage A.1.3) FETAL STAGE - from 2 months until childbirth - muscles and bones begin to form - the now fetus can make physical rdvements as skeletal structures harden - sex organs develop during the 3 month - the final 3 months, brain cells multiply at a brisk (very rapid) pace - a layer of fat is deposited under the skin to provide insulation and the respiratory and digestive system mature - age of viability: age at which a baby can survive premature birth but the babies usually experience many developmental problems afterwards A.2) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT - babies can still be affected as developing organisms are linked to its mother by the placenta - Teratogens: any external agents such as drugs or viruses that can harm an embryo or fetus A.2.1) Maternal Drug Use - heroin babies: born addicted to narcotics and have an increased of early death due to prematurity, birth defects, respiratory difficulties and problems associated with their addiction - prenatal marijuana exposure: disturbances in executive functioning associated with the prefrontal part of the brain at age three- affect attention/impulsivity and problem-solving domains - Fetal alcohol syndrome: collection of inborn problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy . Also, common cause of intellectual disability > typical problem: microcephaly (small head), heart defects, irritability, hyperactivity, delayed motor and mental development >> study: higher alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk for deficits in IQ, motor skills and attention span , antisocial and delinquent (unacceptable) behavior - Smoking: increased risks for miscarriage, stillbirth (birth of dead baby), prematurity and sudden infant death syndrome - Prenatal exposure to tobacco: slower than average cognitive development, attention deficits, hyperactivity and conduct problem A.2.2) Maternal Illness and Exposure to Toxins - placenta screens out quite a number of infectious agents but not all - rubella, syphilis, cholera, smallpox, mumps and severe case of flu can be hazardous to the fetus - genital herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency System (AIDS) are very deadly. > genital herpes when offspring is in contact with the genital part > causes: microcephaly, deafness, blindness and brain damage - HIV virus that causes AIDS are transmitted through placenta, delivery or breast-feeding > but antiretroviral drugs and more cautious obstetrical care can reduce this - others: air pollution , chemicals - but can be helped by: qood-quality medical care that begins early in pregnancy A.2.3) Maternal Nutrition and Emotions - diet rich in folic acid can reduce the likelihood of a variety of birth defects - maternal emotions can have an impact on prenatal development A.2.4) Fetal Origin of Disease - research suggests that events during prenatal development can program the fetal brain in ways that influence one’s vulnerability to various types of illness decades later - low birth weight: increased risk of heart disease many decades later B) THE WONDROUS YEARS OF CHILDHOOD B.1) Exploring the World: Motor Development -Motor development: progression of muscular coordination needed for physical activities B.1.1) Basic Principles Trend a) Cephalocaudal trend: head-to-foot direction of motor development > children tend to gain control over upper part followed by the lower part b) proximodistal trend: centre-outward-direction > torso before extremities (learn to reach by twisting body before manage to extend their arms) - Maturation: development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one’s genetic blueprint > genetically programmed physical changes that come with age > research: infants are active agents rather than passive waiting for brains and limbs to mature B.1.2) Understanding Developmental Norms - Developmental norms: median age at which individuals show various abilities and behaviors B.1.3) Cultural Variations and Their Significance - some cultures encourage motor movement due to the nature of environment that needs the children to learn to hunt, or in some cases they are also prohibited from move a lot due to the dangerous nature of the environment B.2) Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament Basic Styles in Temperament 1) Easy children 2) Slow-to-warm-up children 3) Difficult children - 40% - 15% - 10% - happy, regular in sleeping, - less: cheery, regular in - glum, non-adaptable, erratic adaptable sleeping, eating, adapting in sleeping and eating, irritable - Temperament: characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity - Longitudinal design: observe one group repeatedly over a period of time > participants often drop out because they lose interest - Cross- sectional design: compare groups of participants of differing ages at a single point in time > tend to be more sensitive to developmental changes - Cohort effects: differences between age groups are due to growing in different period of times Result: - 40%: happy, regular in sleeping and eating , adaptable and not readily upset 15%: slow-to-warm-up children who tend to be less cheery, less regular in their sleeping and eating, slower in adapting to change - 10%: difficult children tend to be glum, erratic in sleeping and eating, resistant to change relatively irritable > develop more emotional problems requiring counseling than other children - 15%-20%: inhibited temperament. Children tend to be shy, timid, wariness of unfamiliar people, objects and events - 20%-30%: uninhibited temperament: children are less restrained, approaching unfamiliar people, objects and events with little trepidation B.3) Early Emotional Development: Attachment - Attachment: close, emotional bonds that develop between infants and caregivers - Separation anxiety: emotional distress seen from infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an emotional attachment > peak around 14-18 months B.3.1) Theories of Attachment - mothers are associated with the powerful, reinforcing event of being fed; conditioned reinforcer - infants are biologicall programmed to emit behavior (smiling, cooing clinging etc) that triggers an an affectionate, protective response from adults - evolutionary slant: need to raise offspring to reproductive age and help them develop the social maturity required for successful mating B.3.2) Patterns of Attachment - note: Paul’s note describes this differently Patterns of Attachment 1) Secure Attachment 2) Anxious-ambivalent Att 3) Avoidant Attachment - play and explore comfortably - anxious when mom is near, - seeks little contact with with mom, upsets when she protests when she leaves, not mom, not distressed when leaves and calmed by her particularly comforted when she leaves, not comforted return she returns when she returns 4) Disorganized-disoriented attachment - confused whether to avoid or approach their mom and insecure - Strange situation procedure: infants are exposed to 8 series of separation and reunion episodes to assess their quality of attachment Result: - most develop secure attachment > play comfortably with mom > sad when she leaves and quickly calmed when she returns - some anxious-ambivalent attachment > anxious when mom is near > protests when she leaves > not comforted when she returns - avoidant attachment > seek little contact with mom > not distressed when she leaves - later: disorganized-disoriented > confused whether they should approach or avoid their mother > insecure - affected by mom’s sensitivities and responsiveness to children’s needs - depend on the nature of the infant’s temperament and mother’s sensitivity - internal working models: dynamics of close relationships that influence their social interaction - secure attachment kids: tend to be high in self-esteem resilient, competent toddles, curios, persistence - also sets the tone for people’s romantic relationships in adulthood, gender roles, religious beliefs patterns of self - disclosure B.3.3) Culture and Attachment - attachment is a universal feature of human development B.4) Becoming Unique: Personality Development - Figure: Sigmund Freud : basic foundation of one’s personality firmly laid at age 5 - Figure: Erik Erikson: agrees with SF that it begins early in childhood and it is stamped into adulthood - Stage: developmental period during which characteristics patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established > Stage Theories assume: 1) individuals must progress through specified stages in a particular order because each stage build on the previous stage 2) progress through these stages is strongly related to age 3) development is made by major discontinuities that usher in dramatic transitions in behavior Stage Theory 1) Erik Erikson 2) Jean Piaget -focus: psychosocial crisis -focus: cognitive development (facing crises) - 4 stages - 8 stages > S1: sensorimotor (0-2) > S1: Trust vs Mistrust = coordination of sensory input and motor response, object > S2: Autonomy vs Shame and permanence Doubt > S3: Initiative vs Guilt > S2: preoperational (2-7) > S4: Industry vs Inferiority = symbolic thought: irreversibility, centration, egocentrism, > S5: Identity vs Confusion conservation > S6: Intimacy vs Isolation [early adult] >S3: concrete operational (7-11) > S7: Generativity vs Self- absorption [middle] = mental operation applied to concrete events: reversibility, decentration , decline egocentrism > S8: Integrity vs despair [late adulthood] >S4: formal operational (11 < ) (pg 504) = mental operations applied to abstract ideas: logical, systematic thinking - children are active agents E3) Lev Vygotsky’s 4) Lawrence Kohlberg Sociocultural Theory - focus: cognitive -focus: morality determined by cognitive develop. development (social interact) > focus on moral reasoning than overt behavior - no stage - 3 levels of moral development w 2 sublevels 1) preconventional level - children cognitive development: = S1: punishment orientation 1) depends on social = S2: naïve reward orientation interaction 2) culture exerts great 2) Conventional Level influence = S3: Good boy/girl orientation 3) through language acquisition = S4: Authority orientation 3) Postconventional Level = S5: Social contract orientation = S6: Individual principles and conscience orientation B.4.1) Erikson’s Stage Theory - personality is shaped by how individuals deal with psychosocial crisis - stage concept: can be understood by tug-of-war that determined the subsequent balance between opposing polarities in personality a) Trust versus Mistrust - if all bio needs are met, infants develop secure attachment b) Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (2-3) - during 2 and 3 year of life when toilet training and other independent efforts take place - if succeed, they acquire self-sufficiency - if there are constant conflicts, child may be ashamed and have self-doubt c) Initiative versus Guilt (3-6) - from 3-6, children may take initiative that conflict with parents’ rules - overcontrolling: feeling of guilt and self-esteem may suffer - if done correctly, children retain sense of initiative while respect the rights and privileges of other family members d) Industry versus Inferiority (6 through puberty) - learning to function socially extended beyond family to the broader social realm of the neighborhood and school - those who able to function effectively will develop a sense of competent B.4.2) Evaluating Erikson’s Theory - it accounts for both continuity and transition in personality development - transition: how new challenges in social relationships stimulate personality development throughout life - Drawback: depended heavily on illustrative case which are open to varied interpretations > also, the theory provides an “idealized” description of “typical” developmental patterns - not well suited to explain the enormous personality differences that exist among people A bit prone to stereotype B.5) The Growth of Thought: Cognitive Development - Cognitive development: transitions in youngsters’ patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering and problem solving spearheaded by Jean Piget B.5.1) Overview of Piaget’s Stage Theory - Figure: Jean Piget: interdisciplinary scholar whose cognitive development was also remarkable - also, a stage theory development - proposed: youngsters progress through 4 major stages of cognitive of development by fundamentall different thought processes: 1) sensorimotor motor period (birth – 2) - infants are developing the ability to coordinate their sensory input with their motor actions - key to this transition: acquisition of the concept of object permanence - object permanence: develops when a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even though they are no longer visible 2) preoperational period ( 2-7) - children improve their use of mental images and they may not master the principle of conservation - Centration: tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects - Irreversibility: inability to envision reversing an action - Egocentrism: thinking characterized a limited ability to share another person’s viewpoint >> inability to put oneself in another person’s shoes > animism: all things are living thing – so children attribute living things’ qualities to inanimate objects 3) concrete operational period (7-11) - children can perform operations only on images of tangible objects and actual events - reversibility: permits children to mentally undo an action - decentration: allows children to focus on more than one feature of a problem simultaneously Which leads to - decline in egocentrism and gradual mastery of conservation: applicable to liquid, mass, number, volume, area and length - preoperational children can’t handle hier
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