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Chapter 12

PSYC 100 Ch. 12 Textbook Notes.docx

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PSYC 100
Samuel Reed

CHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY, THEORY, RESEARCH AND ASSESSMENT A) THE NATURE OF PERSONALITY A.1) Defining Personality: Consistency and Distinctiveness - Concept of personality is used to explain: a) stability in a person’s behavior over time and across situation (consistency) b) behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation (distinctiveness) - Personality: a set of an individual’s consistent behavioral traits A.2) Personality Traits: Dispositions and Dimensions - Personality traits: tendency to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations A.3) The Five-Factor Model of Personality Traits [OCEAN] Extraversion Neuroticism Openness to Agreeableness Conscientiousness experience - Referred as +ve - Anxious, hostile, - Curiosity, flexible, - Sympathetic, - Diligent, disciplined, vivid trusting, emotionality self-conscious well-organized, fantasy cooperative - Tend to be happier - Tend to overreact punctual and - Tolerant of ambiguity - Opposite: than others (get stressed suspicious, dependable more) and have less need - Strong self- - Outgoing, sociable, - Impulsive and for antagonistics discipline, upbeat exhibit emotional closure than others - Constructive ability to regulate instability - Determinants of approach to conflict oneself effectively people political resolution (mediator attitude between conflicting party) - Big 5 is predictable for some behavior > extraversion with popularity, conscientiousness with low-alcohol consumption and honesty, openness with playing musical instrument, agreeableness with honesty - 2 of them are related to health and mortality > neuroticism with all major mental disorders, conscientiousness with less illness and reduced mortality B) PERSONALITY THEORIES - Main Figure: Sigmund Freud (the rest disagree with some of his views) PERSONALITY THEORIES 1) Psychodynamic (3) 2) Behavioral (3) 3) Humanistic (3) 4) Biological (1) - focus on unconscious - asserts that scientific -focus on human behavior mental forces psychology should be based (humanism) on observable behavior Figures: Figures: Figures: Figures: 1) Hans Eysenck 1) Sigmund Freud 1) Carl Rogers (Person- - Personality structure: (Psychoanalysis) 1) B.F. Skinner centred) hierarchy of traits (extrav, - Personality structure: id, - assumption views human’s - Personality structure: one neuro, psycho) ego, superego reactions as mechanically construct produced and don’t involve - Developmental Stages: - Tom Higgins (Self- cognitive processes but other oral, anal, phallic, latent, behaviorists assert that Discrepancy) genital humans are conscious, thinking, feeling beings 2) Abraham Maslow 2) Carl Jung (Analytical - Personality Structure: little (Hierarchy of Needs) interest in the inside of the ppl Psycho) - Developmental Stages: 3) Alfred Adler (Individual Psy) none-continuos experience 2) Albert Bandura (Reciprocal Determinism) 3) Walter Mischel (Situational factor) B.1) Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory - grew up in middle-class Jewish home in Vienna, Austria (big impact on him) - sexual repression and hostilities imprinted Freud’s view of human nature - Psychoanalytic theory: tries to explain personality, motivation, psychological disorders by focusing on the influence of early childhood experience, unconscious motives and conflicts, methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges - Most of Freud’s contemporaries (living the same age) are not comfortable with his idea due to the following: 1) F suggests that individuals aren’t the masters of their own minds 2) Adult personality are shaped by childhood experience and other factors beyond one’s controls 3) How people cope with their sexual urges (by offending the conservative, Victorian values) B.1.1) Structure of Personality Structure of Personality Id Ego Superego - primitive, instinctive component of - decision-making component that - moral component of personality that personality that operates according to the operates according to the reality incorporates social standards about pleasure principle principle what represents right and wrong - fulfill raw biological urges (sleep, eat) - ego considers social reality- society’s - emerges around age 3-5 norms, etiquettes, rules and customs - Pleasure principle: demands immediate gratification of its urges - Reality principle: delay gratification of id’s urges until appropriates outlet and - Id engages in primary-process situations can be found thinking: primitive, illogical, irrational, fantasy-orientd - Ego engages in secondary-process thinking: rational, realistic, problem- solving oriented B.1.2) Levels of Awareness - F’s concepts of mind is compared to iceberg that has most of its mass hidden under the water surface - F believes that: unconscious is larger than preconscious and conscious - ego and superego operate at all level of mind awareness - id at unconscious level expressing urges at a conscious level through the ego Levels of Awareness 1) Conscious 2) Preconscious 3) Unconscious - whatever the individuals are aware of at - materials just beneath the surface of - thoughts, memories and desires that a particular time awareness that can be easily retrieved are well below the surface of consciousness but exert great influence on behavior - superego and ego operate here - superego and ego operate here - id operates here - superego and ego operate here B.1.3) Conflict and the Tyranny of Sex and Aggression - F assumes that behaviour is the outcome of ongoing series of internal conflicts (battle between id, ego and superego) -Why F focuses on sexual and aggressive drive 1) because they are subjected to more complex and ambiguous social controls than other basic motives 2) they are thwarted more regularly than other basic biological urges B.1.4) Anxiety and Defence Mechanism - Anxiety can be contributed to your ego worrying about: 1) the id (primitive instinct) getting out of control and doing something that leads to severe –ve consequences 2) the superego (moral) getting out of control and making you feel guilty about real or imagined transgression - Getting rid of the anxious feeling involves defence mechanism: unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt THE MECHANISMS (8) 1) Repression (motivated forgetting): keeping distressing thoughts and feelings in the unconscious - Repression is the flagship of psychoanalytic’s defense mechanism 2) Projection: attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings or motives to another 3) Displacement: diverting emotional feelings (anger) from their original source to a substitute target (work outrage) 4) Reaction formation: behaving in a way that’s opposite of one’s true feelings 5) Regression: reversion to immature patterns of behavior (when anxious boasting in a child-like manner) 6) Identification: bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group 7) Sublimation: Unconscious, unacceptable impulses are channeled into socially acceptable, perhaps even admirable, behaviors 8) Rationalization: creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior Pg: 554 Mechanism: regression, repression, reaction formation, projection, displacement, identification, sublimation, rationalization B.1.5) Development: Psychosexual Stages - Psychosexual stages: developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that imprint their adult personality - Fixation: Failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected > excessive gratifications of needs at a particular stage or by excessive frustration of those needs PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGE 1) ORAL STAGE - first year of life - main source of erotic stimulation: biting, sucking, chewing - F: handling of the child’s feeding experiences is crucial to subsequent development 2) ANAL STAGE - second year - erotic pleasure from their bowel movements through expulsion or retention of feces - Example: toilet training - could affect one’s sexual activities 3) PHALLIC STAGE - age 4 - Oedipal complex emerges: children develop preferences for their opposite gendered-parents 4) LATENCY AND GENITAL STAGES - age 6 through puberty - sexual energy is normally channeled towards of peers of the other sex, rather than towards oneself, as in the phallic stage B.2) Jung’s Analytical Psychology - middle-class, Swiss parents, son of a Protestant pastor, deeply introverted but an excellent child - friends with Freud before disagreement on theoretical views - like F, emphasizes the unconscious determinants of personality - J theorizes the existence of deeper layer called collective unconscious : storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people’s ancestral past - ancestral memories: archetype - archetypes: emotionally charged images and thoughts forms that have universal meaning - Example: mandala or magic circles served as symbol of the unified wholeness - J: understanding of archetypal symbol helped him make sense of his patient’s dreams (thought that dreams contain important messages from unconscious). Also depended on dream analysis in his treatment - J’s archetype had little impact but the first to describe: > Intoverts: tend to be preoccupied with the internal world of their own thoughts, feelings and experiences > Extraverts: tend to be interested in the external world of people and things B.3) Adler’s Individual Psychology - grew up in Vienna in a middle-class Jewish home, was a sickly child - was a charter member of Freud’s inner circle (Vienna Pschoanalytic Society) - asserts that F had gone overboard in theory of sexual conflicts - Striving for superiority: universal drive to adapt, improve oneself and master life’s challenges > children feel he
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