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Chapter 13

PSYC 100 Ch. 13 Textbook Notes.docx

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PSYC 100
Samuel Reed

CHAPTER 13: STRESS, COPING, AND HEALTH - Biopsychosocial model: physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological and sociocultural factors - Healthy psychology: concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention and treatment of illness A) THE NATURE OF STRESS - stress: any circumstances that are deemed to threaten one’s well being hence tax one’s coping abilities A.1) Stress as an Everyday Event - individual’s response to stress may depend on: 1) type of stressor and its controllability 2) biological factors (age and gender) 3) individual’s previous experience with stress - research: routine hassles may have significant harmful effects on mental and physical health A.2) Appraisal: Stress Lies in the Eye of the Beholder - Primary appraisal: an initial evaluation of whether an event: 1) irrelevant 2) relevant but not threatening 3) stressful When view an event as stressful, - Secondary appraisal: evaluation of your coping resources and options for dealing with the stress B) Major Type of Stress - acute stressors: threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint - chronic stressor: have long duration and no apparent time limit Major Type of Stress 1) Frustration 2) Conflict 3) Change 4) Pressure - occurs in any - two or more - noticeable life - expectation to situation incompatible changes that require behave in a certain motivations compete readjust. way - Type: 1) approach- - SRRS approach measurement 2) avoid-avoid 3) approach-avoid > according to Paul: Hassles, catastrophic, major life events B.1) Frustration - occurs in any situation where the pursuit of goals is thwarted B.2) Conflict - two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression - approach- approach: choice between 2 attractive goals (least stressful) - avoidance-avoidance: choice between 2 unattractive goals (highly stressful) - approach-avoidance: choice of whether or not to pursue a single goal with both attractive and unattractive aspects (quite stressful) > often produce vacillation: indecisive when making decision (yes and then no) B.3) Change - noticeable alterations in one’s living circumstances that require readjustment - can be caused by +ve events - Holmes and Rahe developed: Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) > High score: vulnerable to many kinds of physical and psychological problems > critics: lists are dominated by highly negative events > SRRS doesn’t only measure life changes but also wide range of stressful experiences B.4) Pressure - expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way - increased pressure is related to increased risk for heart disease C) RESPONDING TO STRESS RESPONDING TO STRESS 1) Emotional Responses 2) Physiological Responses 3) Behavioral Responses - mostly involves coping 1) annoyance, anger, rage Figures: 2) apprehension, anxiety, 1)Walter Cannon (flight-or- Responses (5): fear fight responses) 1) Giving Up and Blaming 3) dejection, sadness, grief Onesel. 2) Hans Selye (General 2) Striking Out at Others adaption) Figure: 3) Indulging Oneself - alarm, resistance, 4)Barbara Fredrickson exhaustion 4) Defensive Coping (F) (positive emotion) 5) Constructive Coping 3) Brain-body pathways - hypothalamus activates: 1) sympathetic ANS (catechola) 2) endocrine system (corticote) The Stress Process - Recognizing the event - Evaluate the Event - Action Exerted 1) Emotional response Stressful events Cognitive Appraisal 2) Physiological response 3) Behavioral response C.1) Emotional Responses C.1.1) Emotions Commonly Elicited - specific cognitive reactions to stress (appraisals) and specific emotions - Commonly Elicited: 1) annoyance, anger and rage 2) apprehension, anxiety and fear 3) dejection, sadness and grief - Positive emotions may appear in times of stress and promote resilience in the face of stress - Explained by Barbara Frederickson’s “broaden-and-build theory of positive emotion”: 1) +ve emotions alter one’s mindsets, broadening scope of attention and increase creativity and flexibility in problem solving 2) undo the lingering effects of negative emotions, thus short-circuit the potentially damaging physiological responses to stress 3) promote rewarding social interactions that help to build valuable social support, enhanced coping strategies, and other enduring personal resources - Proofs: +ve emotions and low level of stress hormones and reduced mortality, enhanced immune response, protective against heart disease C.1.2) Effects of Emotional Arousal - high emotional arousal can interfere with attention and memory retrieval and can impair judgment and decision making - inverted U-hypothesis: increased arousal improves task performance up to a point and then disrupts it - optimal level of arousal: performance peak > depends on the complexity of the task C.2) Physiological Responses C.2.1) The Flight-or-Fight Response - physiological response to threat where autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for attacking (fight) or fleeing (flight/escape) > ANS controls: blood vessels, smooth muscles and glands > flight or fight response is initiated by sympathetic division C.2.2) The General Adaptation Syndrome - patterns seen in animals as the same, regardless they type of stress - Hans Selye: General adaptation syndrome- model of body’s stress response consisting 3 stages: 1) alarm – organism recognizes the existence of a threat (fight-or-flight response) 2) resistance – physiological changes stabilize as coping efforts get under way 3) exhaustion – body’s resources are depleted to overcome MORE stress C.2.3) Brain-Body Pathways - endocrine system: glands located at various sites in the body > secrete hormones - hypothalamus: brain structure that initiates action - There are 2 pathways: 1) hypothalamus activates sympathetic division of ANS > keypart of action involves stimulating the central part of the adrenal glands(adrenal medulla) to release large amount of catecholamines into the bloodstream > net result: body is mobilized for action > heart rate and blood flow increase, more blood pumped into brain and muscle, respiration and oxygen consumption speeds up, digestive processes are inhibited to conserve energy, pupils dilate increasing visual sensitivity 2) direct communication between the brain and the endocrine system > hypothalamus sends signals to master gland of the endocrine system: pituitary > pituitary secretes a hormone (ACTH) that stimulates the outer part of the adrenal glands to release corticostreroids > these hormones increase energy and help inhibit tissue inflammation in case of injury - stress can interfere with neurogenesis D) Behavioral Responses - mostly involves coping: active efforts to master, reduce or tolerate the demands created by stress - maybe adaptive or maladaptive - Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) measures: 1) task-oriented coping 2) emotion-oriented coping 3) avoidance-oriented coping D.1) Giving Up and Blaming Oneself - Learned helplessness (Behavioral Disengagement) : passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events > when events are beyond control > increases when stress increases - Catastrophic thinking: causes aggravat
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