Psych 101 Chapter 2.docx

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PSYC 101
Catherine( Cathy) Rankin

Scientific Method - A set of rules that governs the collection and analysis of data gained through observational studies or experiments Naturalistic Observation - The observation of the behaviour of people or other animals in their natural habitats Clinical Observation - The observation of the behaviour of people who are undergoing diagnosis or treatment. Correlational Study - The examination of relations between two or more measurements of behaviour or other characteristics of people or other animals Experiment - A study in which the researcher changes the value of an independent variable and observes whether this manipulation affects the value of a dependent variable. ONLY EXPERIMENTS DETERMINE the existence of cause-and-effect relationships Hypothesis - A statement, designed to be tested by and experiment, that tentatively expresses a cause and effect relationship between two or more events Theory - A set of statements that are designed to explain a set of phenomena. This is more encompassing than a hypothesis Case Study - A detailed description of an individuals behaviour during the course of clinical treatment or diagnosis Survey Study - A study of people's responses to standardized questions Variable - Anything capable of assuming any of several values Manipulation - Setting the values of an independent variable in an experiment to see whether the value of another variable is affected Experimental Group - A group of participants in an experiment, the members of which are exposed to the naturally occurring independent variable. Control Group - A comparison group used in an experiment, the members of which are exposed to the naturally occurring value of the independent variable Independent variable - The variable that is manipulated in an experiment as a means of determining cause and effect relations Dependent Variable - The variable that is measured in an experiment Nominal Fallacy - A false belief tha tone has explained the causes of a phenomenon by identifying and naming it. EX. Believing that one has explained lazy behaviour by attributing it to laziness. Operational Definition - The definition of a variable in terms of the operations the researcher performs to measure or manipulate it Validity - The degree to which the operational definition of a variable accurately reflects the variable it is designed to measure or manipulate Confounding of Variables - Inadvertent simultaneous manipulation of more that one variable. The results of an experiment involving confounded variables permit no valid conclusions about cause and effect. Counterbalancing - The systematic variation of conditions in an experiment, such as the order of presentation of stimuli, so that different participants encounter them in different orders. ( This prevents confounding of independent variables) Reliability - The repeatability of a measurement. The likelihood that the measurement wou
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