PSYC 101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Polygynandry, Guanine, Egg Cell

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30 Jan 2013
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Biological Evolution - Changes that take place in the genetic and physical
characteristics of a population or group of organisms over time
Adaptive Significance - The effectiveness of behaviour in aiding organisms to adapt
to changing environmental conditions
Ultimate Causes - Evolutionary conditions that have slowly shaped the behaviour of
a species over generations
Proximate Causes - Immediate environmental events and conditions that affect
behaviour
Culture - The sum of socially transmitted knowledge, customs, and behaviour
patterns common to a particular group of people
Artificial Selection - A procedure in which particular animals are deliberately mated
to produce offspring that possess especially desirable characteristics
Natural Selection - The consequence of the fact that, because there are physical and
behavioural differences among organisms, they reproduce differentially. Within a
given population, the survivors will produce more offspring than the other animals
Reproductive Success - The number of viable offspring produced compared to other
members of the same species
Variation - The differences found across individuals of any given species in terms of
their genetic, biological, and physiological characteristics
Genotype - An organism's genetic makeup
Phenotype - The outward expression of an organism's genotype. An organisms
physical characteristics and behaviour
Competition - A striving or vying with others who share the same ecological niche
for food, mates, and territory
Genetics - The study of the genetic makeup of organisms and how it influences their
physical and behavioural characteristics
Heredity - The sum of the traits and tendencies inherited from a person's parents
and other biological ancestors
DNA - Double helix, Strands of sugar and phosphates are connected by rungs made
from nucleotide molecules of adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine.
Genes - Small units of DNA that direct the synthesis of proteins and enzymes
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