Psych 101 Chapter 3.docx

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PSYC 101
Catherine( Cathy) Rankin

Biological Evolution - Changes that take place in the genetic and physical characteristics of a population or group of organisms over time Adaptive Significance - The effectiveness of behaviour in aiding organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions Ultimate Causes - Evolutionary conditions that have slowly shaped the behaviour of a species over generations Proximate Causes - Immediate environmental events and conditions that affect behaviour Culture - The sum of socially transmitted knowledge, customs, and behaviour patterns common to a particular group of people Artificial Selection - A procedure in which particular animals are deliberately mated to produce offspring that possess especially desirable characteristics Natural Selection - The consequence of the fact that, because there are physical and behavioural differences among organisms, they reproduce differentially. Within a given population, the survivors will produce more offspring than the other animals Reproductive Success - The number of viable offspring produced compared to other members of the same species Variation - The differences found across individuals of any given species in terms of their genetic, biological, and physiological characteristics Genotype - An organism's genetic makeup Phenotype - The outward expression of an organism's genotype. An organisms physical characteristics and behaviour Competition - A striving or vying with others who share the same ecological niche for food, mates, and territory Genetics - The study of the genetic makeup of organisms and how it influences their physical and behavioural characteristics Heredity - The sum of the traits and tendencies inherited from a person's parents and other biological ancestors DNA - Double helix, Strands of sugar and phosphates are connected by rungs made from nucleotide molecules of adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. Genes - Small units of DNA that direct the synthesis of proteins and enzymes Genome - The total set of material of an organism Enzymes - Proteins that regulate the structure of the bodily cells and the processes occurring within those cells Chromosomes - Threadlike structures in the nuclei of living cells, they contain genes Sex Chromosomes - The chromosomes that contain the instructional code for the development of male and female sex characteristics Autosomes - The chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes Meiosis - The form of cell division by which sperm and ova are formed. The chromosomes within the cell are randomly arranged so that new sperm and ova contain 23 individual chromosomes. Half of normal Alleles - Alternative forms of the same genes Dominant Trait - The trait that is exhibited when an individual possesses heterozygous alleles Recessive
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