Textbook Notes (368,986)
Canada (162,320)
Psychology (773)
PSYC 101 (70)
Chapter

PSYC 101 CHPT. 10

6 Pages
56 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 101
Professor
Barbara Cox
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC 101 , 007 CHPT. 10 LANGUAGE I. Speech & Comprehension Language- our spoken, written, or gestured works and the way we combine them to communicate meaning Basic Language Requirements  Language is interpersonal  It is designed for exchange of meanings and information in a social group  Language is meaningful  Elements express meaningful concepts such as ―rabbit‖, ―red‖ or ―run‖  Language is structured  Specific combinations and sequences alter the meaning Psycholinguistics- a branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour  Study of the mental mechanisms that make it possible for people to use language Braches of Psycholinguistics: 1. Study of Sounds Phonetics  What sounds do languages use?  What sounds “make a difference”? Phonology  How do sounds fit together in particular languages? Recognition of Speech Sounds  Phoneme- minimum unity of sound that coveys meaning in a particular language, such as /p/  Are recognized even though their pronunciation is affected by neighboring sounds in a spoken word, by accents, & by stress  Ex. “pin” consists of 3 phonemes /p/+/i/+/n/  Voice-onset time- delay between the initial sound of a consonant & the onset of vibration of the vocal chords  We distinguish between voiced & unvoiced consonant phonemes using voice-onset time  Morpheme- smallest unit of meaning in language  Phonemes combine to form morphemes  Some morphemes are phonemes (e.g., “I” and “a”)  Some morphemes are word “parts” (e.g. “est” or “er” as in “fastest” or “faster”)  Some morphemes are words (e.g., “bat”)  Bound morphemes (e.g. “th” & “est”) cannot stand on their own & must attached to other morphemes to provide meaning Recognition of Words & Continuous Speech: The Importance of Learning & Context  Larger units of speech are established by learning & experience  We are able to recognize sounds because of the context  We also use types of cues in the environment to help us understand what someone is saying  Ex. while standing at a snack shop at the beach & someone says “I scream”, we are likely to hear it as “ice cream” Syntax  We must follow the rules of language for the listener to understand our speech  All languages have a syntax or grammar, which follow certain principles  Syntactical rules- grammatical rules of a particular language for combine words to form phrases, clauses & sentences  Our understanding of syntax is automatic but our brains behave differently when we encounter more difficult syntax  fMRI studies show that our brain become more active when syntax becomes more complex or ambiguous  syntactical rules are learned implicitly  people can learn to apply the rules without actually being able to say what the rules are  important features that we use to understand syntax are: word order, word class, function & content words, word meanings & prosody  function word- a preposition, article or other word that conveys little meaning of a sentence but is important in specifying its grammatical structure (e.g. a, the, to, some, and, but, when)  content word- a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb that conveys meaning  affix- sound or group of letters that is added to the beginning of a word (prefix) or to its end (suffix)  alter the grammatical function of words  we are quick to recognize the syntactical function of words with affixes (hear –ed at the end, know its past tense)  semantics- meanings & study of meanings represented by words  provide important cues to the syntax of a sentence, word meanings help understanding of what is said  prosody- use of changes in intonation & emphasis to convey meaning in speech besides that is specified by the particular words  an important means of communication of emotion Relation Between Semantics & Syntax  Noam Chomsky suggested that newly formed sentences are represented in the brain in terms of their meaning, which he called their deep structure  Deep structure- essential meaning of a sentence, without regard to the grammatical features of the sentence that are needed to express it in words deep structure into the appropriate surface structure  The brain must transform t  Surface structure- grammatical features of a sentence  Most psychologists disagree but consider the distincti0on between deep & surface structure to be an important insight Knowledge of the World  Speech comprehension requires more than an understanding of syntax & semantics  Speech comprehension also involves knowledge about the world & about particular situations that we encounter  We must share common knowledge of the world with a speaker if we are to understand what the speaker is referring to  Schank & Ableson suggested that knowledge is organized into scripts  Script- characteristics (events, rules, etc) that are typical of a particular situation  Assists the comprehension of verbal discourse  Once the speaker has established which script is being referred to, the listener can fill in the details Brain Mechanisms of Verbal Behaviour  Mechanisms involved in perceiving, comprehending, & producing speech are located in different areas of the cerebral cortex  Effects of brain damage suggest that memories of the muscular movements needed to produce sounds of words are located near Broca’s area & memories of the sounds of words are located in Wernicke’s area  Broca’s area (region of the frontal cortex on the left side of the brain) is necessary for speech production  Wernicke’s area is necessary for speech perception  Broca’s aphasia- severe difficulty in articulating words, especially function words, caused by damage that includes Broca’s area  Characterized by non-fluent but meaningful speech that is scarce in function words but rich in content words  Aggramatism- a language disturbance often produced by damage to Broca’s area  Difficult in production & comprehension of grammatical features, such as proper use of unction words, word endings, & word order  Wernicke’s aphasia- disorder caused by damage to left temporal & parietal cortex, including Wernicke’s area  Characterized by deficits in perception of speech & by the production of fluent but rather meaningless speech  Scarce in content words but rich in function words  Pure word deafness- ability to hear, to speak, & usually to write, without being able to comprehend the meaning of speech produced by damage restricted to Wernicke’s area  Isolation aphasia- language disturbance that includes an inability to comprehend speech or to produce meaningful speech, accompanied the ability to repeat speech & learn new sequences of words  Caused by brain damage to left temporal/parietal cortex that spares Wernicke’s area What Is Meaning?  Meaning of a word (its semantics) is defined by particular memories associated with it  These memories are nor stored in the primary speech areas but in other parts of the brain, especially in regions of the association cortex  Different categories of memories may be stored in particular regions of the brain  Somehow are tired together as hearing one word activates all the memories associated with the word II. Reading Scanning of Text  Our eyes make rapid jumps, called saccades, as we scan a scene or while we read  We do not perceive things while the eyes are moving but during brief fixations that occur between saccades  Fixation- a brief interval between saccadic eye movements during which the eye does not move  Visual info is gathered during this time  Lasts about 250 milliseconds but duration can vary by a lot  Good readers have on average considerably shorter fixations than poor readers  All good readers’ saccades are in forward direction  Poor readers look back & examine previously read words several times  University students fixate on 80% of the content words but only 40% of the function words  Readers are more likely to skip over short function words (i.e. and or the) than over short content words  As we read a sentence, we analyze it word by word  The less frequently a word occurs in normal usage (the more unusual the word), the greater the fixation time  Fixation time is also influenced by the predictability of words in text (longer for unpredictable words)  Readers spend more time fixating on longer words  if word familiarity is held constant, the amount of time a word receives is proportional to its length  amount of time Chinese readers spend fixating on a traditional Chinese character is proportional to the number of brush strokes used to write it Phonetic & Whole-Word Recognition: Evidence from Neuropsychology  2 basic ways to recognize words: phonetic & whole-word recognition  Phonetic reading- reading by decoding the phonetic significance of letter strings; “sound reading”  Use knowledge of the relation between letters & sounds in the language  See an unfamiliar word or a pronounceable nonsense word, we recognize each letter & then sound it out  Whole-word reading- reading by recognizing a word as a whole; “sight reading”  The method used when words are familiar  Must faster method  Necessary in a language in which spelling is not completely phonetic  Without ability to recognize words as wholes, no ability to read irregularly spelled words  In an experienced reader, both phonetic & whole-word reading occur at the same time  Best evidence that proves people can read words without
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 101

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit