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PSYC 101 (70)
Peter Graf (13)
Chapter 3

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PSYC 101
Peter Graf

SCIENTIFIC METHOD - identifying a problem/question - formulating hypothesis - testing hypothesis - analyzing results - conclusion Identify a Problem - pose a question that can be answered by the scientific method - operationalize critical parts (give an exact descr. of how to derive a value for variable manipulated/measured) Hypothesis There are two types of hypotheses: H 0 new study method will not have an effect on dependent variable H 1 new study method will have an effect on dependent variable H 1Anew study method will have a positive effect on dependent variable or = new study method will have a negative effect on dependent variable Case Study - detailed study of an indiviidual/group/device/eevent Advantages: taking advantage of unique cases, to gain ideas, insights, obtain examples Limitations: useless for testing theories (because it’s so specific), study is difficult to replicate Survey - reported attitudes, emotions, preferences, general characteristics Advantages: easy, cheap, large amounts of data (on general topics), high in ecological validity Limitations: Wording and ordering of items/questions can affect results / dishonesty (socially- correct answers) / difficult to obtain a representative sample Correlations - systematic assessment of relationship between two or more variables - purpose: to learn the relationship b/w two/more variables, to make predictions b/w the two Advantages: easy, cheap, quick to obtain info / used to address nearly any event / high in ecological validity Limitations: cannot provide info about cause-effect links Blinding - Methods by which involved persons in experiment know the purpose of experiment Single Blind: Experiments where information that could itroduce bias or otherwise skew the result is withheld from the participants Double Blind: Experiments where info is held from both subjects and experimenters Confounding Variables Self fulfilling Prophecy - believe something will happen, and it does Hawthorne Effect - people act differently when they know they’re being examined Common Confounds Goal
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