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Chapter 7

chapter 7 memory.doc

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 101
Catherine Rawn

PSYC 101 CHAPTER 7 MEMORY: - Memory: retention of information over time - The paradox of memory is when in some situations; our memory is surprisingly good/bad at times - Memory illusion: false but subjective compelling memory - Our memories are farm more reconstructive than reproductive - When we try to recall an event, we try to use cues and information to help us Observer memory: memory in which we see ourselves as an outside observer would - Freud notes that observer memories show that our memory are reconstructive - Field memory: seeing the world through your visual field - Our memories can be shaped by our cultural backgrounds too (Asian often experience observer whereas Europeans experience field) Three systems of Memory Sensory - lasts only a few seconds before passing some onto the next system - brief storage of perceptual information before passed to short –term memory - iconic memory: visual sensory memory (lasts for a second before gone forever) - believed that our senses has its own form of sensory memory - Echoic memory: auditory sensory memory (can last for 5-10 seconds) Short term (working) - up to 20 seconds without rehearsal - works with the information handed to it, transforms it into more meaningful material before passing onto the next system - decays: fading of information from memory over time - as we create new memories, our old ones gradually fade away - interference: loss of information from memory because of competition from additional information - two types of interference: retroactive and proactive - Retroactive: interference with retention of old information due to acquisition of new information - Proactive interference: interference with acquisition of new information due to previous learning of information - George Miller presents the idea of the magic number which is a span of 7 +/- pieces of information - An avg person can retain about 7 pieces of information in their short term memory - Chunking: organize information into meaningful grouping, allowing us to extend the span of short-term memory eg. NHLPEICBCNBAMLA - Rehearsal: repeating information to extend the duration of retention in short-term memory and promote the likelihood of transfer to long-term memory - Two types of rehearsal: maintenance, elaborative - Maintenance rehearsal: repeating stimuli in their original form to retain them in short-term memory - Elaborative rehearsal: linking stimuli to each other in a meaningful way to improve retention of information in short-term memory - Elaborative reherarsal usually works better than maintenance rehearsal - Level of processing: the more deeply we process information, the better we tend to remember it - Long term memory - lasts for minutes, days, weeks, months, years, or lifetime - has a larger capacity than short-term - permastore: type of long-term memory that appears to be permanent - the types of mistakes we commit in long-term memory differ from those in short- term memory - long term memory tend to be semantic: based on the meaning of the information we’ve received “confused “poodle” as a “terrier” - in contrast, short-term memory errors tend to be acoustic- based on the sound of the information we’ve received “noodle/poode” - Primary effect: tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list especially well - Recency effect: tendency to remember words at the end of a list especially well - Von Restorff effect: tendency to remember stimuli that are distinctive or that stick out from other stimuli (odd one) - Serial Position curve: graph depicting both primary and recency effects on people’s ability to recall items on a list - Recency effect seems to reflect the workings of short-term memory - For primary effect, we are more likely to recall the earlier words because we spent a greater time rehearsing them silently or maybe even chunking - Greater chance of transfer form short term long term - Semantic memory: our knowledge of facts about the world - Episodic memory: recollection of events in our lives - Both semantic and episodic memory are examples of explicit memory, the process of recalling information intentionally - In contrast, implicit memory is the process of recalling information we don’t remember deliberately (no conscious effort) - Explicit : semantic, episodic - Implicit: procedural, priming, conditioning, habituation - Procedural Memory: memory for motor skills and habits. the “know how” memory - Priming: our ability to identify a stimulus more easily or more quickly when we’ve previously encountered similar stimuli The Three Processes of Memory Encoding, storage and retrieval - Encoding: process of getting information into our memory banks - many memory failure occur because of failure of encoding - no encoding= no memory - Mnemonic: a learning aid, strategy or device that enhances recall (eg. EGBDF – piano) - Mnemonic share two features: can be applied to a wide variety of material/ depends on having a store of knowledge to begin with - Pegword method relies on rhymes - Method of Loci relies on imagery of places - Keyword method depends on your ability to think of an English word (helps with learning foreign language) - Storage: process of keeping information in memory - Schemas: organized knowledge structure or mental meodel that we’ve stored in memory - Schemas can sometime create problems because they can lead us to remember things that never happened - Schemas simplify things, but can sometimes oversimplify = bad  produce memory i
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