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PSYC 101 (70)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 101
Catherine Rawn

PSYC 100 chapter 2 research methods these can make us draw misleading conclusions: – Heuristics are mental shortcut that helps us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world – 2 types: representativeness and availability – representativeness heuristics: involves judging the probability of an event by its superficial similarity of a prototype (judge a book by its cover) – availability heuristics: involves estimating the likelihood of an occurrence based on the ease with which it comes to our mind – cognitive biases: systematic errors in thinking – hindsight bias: tendency to overestimate how well we could have successfully forecaseted known outcomes “ i knew it all along” effect – overconfidence: tendency to overestimate our ability to make correct predicitons – the scientific method is a toolbox of skills designed to prevent ourselves to be misled – the tools help us test hypothesis – Research designs: naturalistic observations, case studies, correlational designs, experiemental designs Naturalistic observations: – watching behaviour in real-world settings without trying to manipulate the situation – can help understand the range of behaviours displayed by individuals in the “real world” – ADVANTAGE: high in external validity – external validity: extend to which we can gernealize findings to real-world settings – have higher external validity than lab experiments – DISADVANTAGE: low in internal validity – internal validity: extend to which we can draw cause-and effect interferences from a study – lab exps have higher internal validity b.c we can manipulate the key variables ourselves – naturalistic designs can be problematic if ppl know they are being observed Case Studies: – research design that examines one person or a small # of ppl in depth over an extended time period – ADVANTAGE: can provide existence proofs; allow us to study rare phenomena – DISADVANTAGE: are typically anecdotal; don't allow us to infer causation Self report measures and survey: – Random selection: procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate – is crucial to generalize results to the broader population – When evaluating results we need to check the reliability and validity – Reliability: consistency of measurement – test-retest reliability: yielding similar scores over time – interrater reliability: extend to which different ppl who conduct an interview agree on the characteristic they're measuring – Validity: extend to which a measure assesses what it purports to measure – Reliability is necessary for validity – Advantage of self-report measuers: easy to administer – Disadvantage: they typically assume that respondents possess enough insight into their personality characteristics to report on them accurately – this assumption is questionable for certain groups of ppl nd – 2 disadvantage is that they assume that participants are honest – respondents engage in response sets: tendency to participants to distort their responses – 2 problematic response sets: positive impression management and malingering – positive impression management: tendency to make ourselves ook better than we are – malingering: tendency to make ourselves appear psychologically disturbed with the aim of achieving a personal goal eg. Ppl trying to get financial compensation for injury/escape military duty Rating data: – halo effect: this is the tendency of ratings of one positive character to infleunce the rating of other positive characterisitcs. – Tend to regard the targets as “angels” – horn effect: rating of one negative trait to influence the rating of other negative traits Correlational Designs: – ADVANTAGE: can help us to predict behaviours – DISADVANTAGE: don't allow us to infer causation – research design that examines the extent to which two variables are associated – correlation can be +,-, or 0 – + correlation means that as the value of one variable changes, the other goes in same direction – - correlation means that as the value of one variable changes, the other goes in the opposite direction – 0 correlation means that the variables don't go together (no relation) – correlation coefficients range from -1.0 to 1.0 – a correlation coefficient of -1.0 is a perfect negative correlation – +1.0 is a perfect positive correlation – values lower than 1.0 eg. .23 or .69 indicate a less than perfect correlation coefficients – we need to look at the absolute value to find how strong a correlation coefficient is – scatterplot: grouping of points on a 2d graph – we can fall prey to a phenomenon called illusory correlation – illusionary correlation: perception of a statistical association between two variables where none exist – illusionary correlation is a statistical mirage – eg. convinced that full moon have a correlation with more births and crime but in reality, 0 correlation – explains why we can't reply on our subjective impression to tell us whether 2 variables are associated – and why we need correlation designs – our intuition often mislead us esp when we've learned to expect 2 things to go together – however, dont confuse correlation versus causation fallacy with illusioanry correlation – illusory correlation refers to perceving a correlation where none exists Experimental designs: – ADVANTAGE: allows us to infer causation, high in internal validity – DISADVANTAGE: can sometimes be low in external validity – infer cause-and effect- relation – often known as experiments – differ from other designs: they permit caus-and efect inferences – researchers are manipulating vari
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