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Chapter 4

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PSYC 101
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Ch 4 SensationPerceptionIllusion perception in which the way we perceive a stimulus doesnt match the physical realitySensation detection of physical energy by sense organs then send information to the brainDetects properties of stimuliSensory receptorsnervous systemPerception the brains interpretation of raw sensory inputsOrganize interpret sensory inputRecognize meaningful objects eventso1 Sensation allows us to pick up signals o2 Perception allows us to assemble these signals into something meaningfulSensation SenseDetectivesTransduction process of converting an external energy substance into electrical activity within neuronsSpecific type of specialized cellsense receptor transduces a specific stimulusSense receptorspecialized cell responsible for converting external stimuli into neural activity for a specific sensory system Sensory adaptation activation is greatest when a stimulus is first detectedafter response declines in strength Psychophysics study of how we perceive sensory stimuli based on their physical characteristicsAbsolute threshold lowest level of a stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect a change 50 of the timeJust noticeable difference JND the smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can detectRelevant to our ability to distinguish stronger weaker stimulusWebers law there is constant proportional relationship btw the JND and original stimulus intensity oStronger the stimulus bigger the change needed for a change in stimulus intensity to be noticeableSignal detection theory theory regarding how stimuli are detected under different conditions oSignaltonoise ratio becomes harder to detect a signal as background noise increasesResponse biases tendency to make one type of guess over another when a weak signal present Specific nerve energies sensation we experience is determined by nature of sense receptor not stimulusPhosphenes vivid sensations of light caused by pressure on your eyes receptor cells rubbing eyes shortly after waking upoIn cerebral cortex different areas devoted to different sensesbrain react the same way whether light or touch activated the sense receptoroOnce visual sense receptors send their signalscortexbrain interprets as visual regardless of how receptors stimulates in the first placeoMost areas of cortex connected to cortical areas devoted to the same sense vision areas connected with other vision areasMcGurk effect crossmodal processing producing different perceptual experiences than either modality provides by itselfoHearing audio baseeing video gaperceptual experience dabrains best guess at integrating two conflicting sources of infoRubber hand illusion sense of touchsightfalse perceptual experience 134 crossmodal effects may reflect crosstalk among different brain regionsOR single brain region may serve double duty helping to process multiple sensesSynesthesiacondition in which people experience crossmodal sensations oColored hearinghearingtasting sounds when they see colors Graphemecolor synesthesia 6 red 5greenLexicaltaste synesthesia words have associated tastesOther synesthesia letters take on personality traits Perception Senses meet Brainsa whats in the sensory fieldb what was there a moment agoc what we remember from the pastParallel processing ability to attend to many sense modalities simultaneously Bottom processing processing in which a whole is constructed from partsoPerceiving an object from the basis of its edgesoStarts with raw stimuli we perceiveinto meaningful concept
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