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PSYC 101 (70)
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Chapter 1

PSYC 101 Chapter 1 Note.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 101
Professor
Peter Graf
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYC Note Chap.1 Psyc Contributors 1. Wundt - founder of psyc - 1879, 1st formal German laboratory for research in psy(Uni of Leipzig) = psyc's "date of birth" 2. Hermann von Helmboltz - demostrated the speed of nerve impulses F.C.Donders - the time btw stimulus presentation and response Gustav Fechner - the perceived intensity of a stimulus is not = to its physcial intensity (prove the new science is visible) 3. Charles Darwin (ask abt purpose) a. Human share a common ancestor with other contemporary primates b. Natural slelction - heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on th subsequent generations and thus come to be "selected"over time. 4. Anthropocentrism - The idea that ppl are the most important thing in the universe Determinism - Every events is causally determined by an unbroken chain of preceding events. Scientific Method 1. First writings - Muslim scientists ~1000yrs ago 2. F. Bacon Observation I. Newton Developers to Formulation of hypotheses R. Descartes Testing of hypotheses Systems of Psyc: - AKA a school of thought / approach/ paradigm - Define a school of thought: a. one or more core assumptions b. A distinct objective/purpose c. A method What scientists do: use the outside to clue the inside but have to use all prospectives - Revolutions in Sci.(T. Kuhn): - agrued against the idea that develop in sci. occur by gradual accumulation of facts. - suggested that science is about revolution nd overthrow the old ideas/approaches) Structuralism 1. leader - Wundt & Titchener 2. Structuralism - based on the notion that the task of psyc is to analye consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related.(breaking down mental process into the most basic components: sensations, images, affections) 3. study the compenents of conscious experience 4. use the mothod of introspection - the careful, systematic self-obsevation of one's own conscious experience 5. gravitated to the laboratory 6. define psyc as the study of the contents of the conscious mind 7. Problems: a. method unreliable (same tests will get different result) b. Structuralism cares only the conscious mind but ignores the unconsicous part, which is more important. Functionalism 1. leader - W. James & S.Hall (see below) 2. Functionalish - based on the belief that psyc should investigate the function or purpose of consciouseness rather than its structure. 3. Principle of natural selection (follow the Darwin's) 4.James's arguments - a. Due to the natural selection, consciousness is an important characteristic of human 1 PSYC Note Chap.1 b. structuralists' approach miessed the real nature of conscious experiences. 5. interested in how ppl adapt their behaviour to the demands of the real world 6. define psyc as the study of functions of psyc abilities Gestaltism 1.Gestaltism - A reaction to the molecular approach of structuralism, and based on the notion that whole is greater than the sum of the parts. 2. Gestalt psychology - asserts that the perception of object is produced by particular configurations of the elements of stimuli Freudianism 1. leader: S. Freud 2. He believed that the human mind was composed of: a. the id (primal urges) b. the ego (personality change w dealing w reality) c. the superego (personality that holds all of the value &ideas) 3. unconscious - contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour. 4. Psychoanalytic theory - attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour. (explain behaviour by focusing on unconscious processes) Behaviourism 1. Behaviourism - a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psyc should study only observable behaviour B. Watson 2. Nature VS Nurture - argued that behaviour is "nurtured" but not "nature" (believed that the nurture as the foundation for learning and development) 3. Behaviourists view psyc - relationship btw environmental stimuli & the response of organics. 4. Animal research - reason of using animals for research: more productive if experimenters can exert considerable control over their subjects (convinced that learning is the same in all creature) B.F. Skinner 5. views - internal and mental events are private events which should not be considered while explaining behaviour (Psyc should stay focusing in publicly observable behaviour) 6. Fundamental principle - Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and avoid responses that lead to negative outcomes. 7. Freedom is illusion 8. articulate the basic law of behaviour: a. environmental factors determine behaviour b. the Fundamental principle Humanism: 1. Leader: A. Maslow 2. Humanism - emphasized individual's uniqueness/ potential, and stressed the importance of growth & self actualization (optimistic view) 3. Reaction to behaviourism - human behaviour is governed by each individual's sense of self which animals presumably lack. Cognitivism 1. leader: Donal Hebb 2. Cognition - the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge, involves thinking or conscious experience 3. Cognitive Phsy - Study mental processes including how ppl think, perceive, remember 2 PSYC Note Chap.1 (the area of psyc that focus on the faculty of knowledge) 4. Cognitive theorists argued - psyc must study internal mental events to fully understand behavior (ppl's manipulations of mental images surely influence how they behave) Biologism 1. Concerned with the integration of mind, body & behavior. 2. Examined/ explained behavior in terms of physiological process - J. Olds: electrical stimulation of the brain evokes emotional responses in animals - R. Sperry: left & right brain have different specializations - D. Hebb: Speculated the cell-assemblies explain neural network Cognitive Neuroscience (the current school) 1. combine Cognitivism and Biologism 2. Enabled by developments in brain imaging tech. 3. focus on: how behavior & pscy/cog functions are produced
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