Textbook Notes (368,214)
Canada (161,710)
Psychology (773)
PSYC 102 (116)
Chapter 11

Psych 102 - Chapter 11 Notes.pdf

4 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 102
Christopher Stephens

David Goosenberg Psych 102 - Chapter 11 Notes - Motivation & Work - motivations arise from the interplay between nature & nurture. mechanism or flow of behavior that can be directed in many ways 4 Perspectives for viewing motivated behaviors: - Instinct theory (now replaced by Evolutionary perspective) - focuses on genetically predisposed behaviors - Drive-reduction theory - focuses on how our inner pushes & external pulls interact - Arousal theory - focuses on finding the right level of stimulation - Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs - describes how some of our needs take priority over others - early in 20th century as the influence of Darwin’s evolutionary theory grew, it became fashionable to classify all sorts of behaviors as instincts. It was like “explaining” a bright child’s low grades by labeling the child an “underachiever”. to name a behavior is not to explain it - to quality as an instinct, a complex behavior must have a fixed pattern throughout a species & be unlearned - when the original instinct theory of motivation collapsed, it was replaced by drive-reduction theory —the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused state that drives the organism to reduce the need (ex* eating or drinking). without many exceptions, when a physiological need increases, so does a psychological drive - the physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostastis - a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level - incentive - a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior - driven by curiosity - baby monkeys & children are fascinated by things they’ve never handled before, their drive to explore the unfamiliar is one of several motives that do not fill any immediate physiological need - so human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but to seek optimum levels of arousal. having all biological needs satisfied, we feel driven to experience stimulation & we hunger for information. lacking stimulation we feel bored & seek a way to increase arousal, but with too much stimulation comes stress & we try to decrease arousal - Maslow’s hierarchy of needs - some needs take priority over others. beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs & then psychological needs become active - Self-Actualization - only 2% of people, superior perception of reality, is spontaneous/ creative/autonomous. cannot be reached until prior needs are met - critique’s of Maslow’s theory - higher level needs sometimes trump lower, & culturally biased Henry Murray’s Need-Press Model (1930s) - motives stem from desire to fill void (need) in light of environmental constraints (press). extensive case studies of 50 men, identified ~20 motives (3 key ones) - affiliation - desire to spend time with others. predicts marital happiness & future psychosocial adjustment - achievement - desire to do things well. predicts entrepreneurial activity - dominance (power) - desire to impact other people/have prestige. predicts managerial success ▯ - Thematic Apperception Test - a person’s responses reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people Disorders of motivation: alcoholism, drug abuse, behavioral addictions (gambling, sex-addicts) - motivation is multiply determined (everything psychological is simultaneously biological) - it’s also a system for motivating behavior - necessary for survival - Olds (1956) Intercranial Self-stimulation - observed that rats preferred to return to the region of the test apparatus where they received direct electrical stimulation to the reward center of the brain. Why is ICSS so motivating? - Hedonia (pleasure) hypothesis - seemed to be confirmed by studies on Patient B-19 - emergence of dopamine - DA antagonists muted lever-pressing behavior - Hunger - when we feel hungry we have stomach contractions. increases in the hormone insulin diminish blood glucose, partly by converting it to stored fat. glucose - the form of blood sugar that circulates in the blood & provides the major source of energy for body tissues. when glucose is low, we feel hungry. - hypothalamus - performs various body maintenance functions, including control of hunger. responds to our current blood chemistry as well as to incoming neural information about the body’s state - lateral hypothalamus - damage can cause reduced food intake - ventromedial hypothalamus - lesion to this are causes overeating & obesity - ghrelin - hunger-arousing hormone secreted by empty stomach. orexin, secreted by hypothalamus also triggers hunger. leptin & PYY both decrease hunger -
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 102

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.