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PSYC 102 Chapter Notes -Bone Density, Libido, Ovulation

Course Code
PSYC 102
Delroy Paulhus

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Motivation- factors that initiate and direct behavior, usually toward a goal (eg.
hunger, sex, $, drug fix)
-we have motivation + emotion for survival; organisms need to be adaptive (forces
us in right direction)
Varieties of Motivation:
-Freud said just 2
Learning theory-blank slate, nothing till conditioned-doesn’t deal directly with
Humanistic theory-only Maslow’s pyramid deals with, mostly with order
Instincts-more with animal studies, too many w/ no organization (learning theory
say we don’t’ have)
11.1 Activating Behaviour
Internal Factors
1. Instinct-unlearned response patterns, controlled by specific triggering
-more complex than reflexes
-Darwin said instincts are central factor in human motivation (eg. care for kid,
clean self, love)
-just because behavior consistent doesn’t mean unlearned and unflexible
-William James said 20 physical + 17 mental instincts
-William McDougall said 12 (later said 17)
-no agreement on how to class as instinct, so not good explanation for
2. Drive-needed to initiate goal-directed behavior/motivation
Primary Drive-state arising in response to internal need (eg. hunger or thirst)
Homeostasis-body wants to maintain steady state (eg. temperature,
-need detected, drive activates organism, seeks to reduce need
Secondary Drive-learned by association, linked to a primary drive (eg. need
-more flexible idea than instinct b/c how you maintain is not restricted to
specific stimuli
-does not explain behavior when needs are absent
Proximate factors-causes of behaviour due to immediate internal/external envt (eg.
glucose level)
Ultimate factors-causes of behavior due to adaptive + reproductive significance
External Factors
Incentive Motivation-external pulls that tempt/deter people using
-whether you are motivated depends on value of positive/negative incentive

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eg. run longer so can eat brownie; avoid kitchen b/c watching calories
-motivation affected by both in/external factors (eg. if thirsty, will up incentive of
Achievement Motivation
Achievement motive-pushes us to seek challenging tasks + significant
-if high, work hard + achieve more than those with low
-measured in questionnaires (ask bout achievement), but better with
projective tests (wishes)
-varies with different tasks, depending on:
a) Expectations about success of your effort
eg. want to be basketball star, but low expectations b/c of height
b) Value of success at task
-likely to be more motivated if: parents value task, praised for effort (opp. if need
natural intelligence)
-if natural talent for something, achievement motivation will focus on that area
Cultural factors:
-values for certain tasks differ (affect what we want to achieve and productivity of
society as whole)
-value individual or collective success (if individual, more self-confidence and more
easily motivated)
Intrinsic Motivation
-goal-directed behavior that is self-motivated
-external rewards can lower interest in task (can’t enjoy it for what it is), but can
also enhance creativity
a) Loss of control-reward controls us (we are drawing to please others, not
b) Overjustification-now reward motivates us, degrades value of task
-interest lowered more if expect reward, but if given unexpectedly can increase
time spend on task
11.2 Biological Needs: Hunger
Internal Factors
Chemical Signals-body monitors amounts of things like food in stomach, glucose,
insulin, leptin
Glucose-sugar needed for energy production in cells (liver reacts to change in
amount or use of glucose)
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