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PSYC 102 (116)

Activating Behaviour

7 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 102
Delroy Paulhus

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Motivation- factors that initiate and direct behavior, usually toward a goal (eg. hunger, sex, $, drug fix) -we have motivation + emotion for survival; organisms need to be adaptive (forces us in right direction) Varieties of Motivation: -Freud said just 2 Learning theory-blank slate, nothing till conditioned-doesn’t deal directly with emotions Humanistic theory-only Maslow’s pyramid deals with, mostly with order Instincts-more with animal studies, too many w/ no organization (learning theory say we don’t’ have) 11.1 Activating Behaviour Internal Factors 1. Instinct-unlearned response patterns, controlled by specific triggering stimuli -more complex than reflexes -Darwin said instincts are central factor in human motivation (eg. care for kid, clean self, love) -just because behavior consistent doesn’t mean unlearned and unflexible -William James said 20 physical + 17 mental instincts -William McDougall said 12 (later said 17) -no agreement on how to class as instinct, so not good explanation for motivation 2. Drive-needed to initiate goal-directed behavior/motivation Primary Drive-state arising in response to internal need (eg. hunger or thirst) Homeostasis-body wants to maintain steady state (eg. temperature, fluids) -need detected, drive activates organism, seeks to reduce need Secondary Drive-learned by association, linked to a primary drive (eg. need money) -more flexible idea than instinct b/c how you maintain is not restricted to specific stimuli -does not explain behavior when needs are absent Proximate factors-causes of behaviour due to immediate internal/external envt (eg. glucose level) Ultimate factors-causes of behavior due to adaptive + reproductive significance External Factors Incentive Motivation-external pulls that tempt/deter people using rewards/punishments -whether you are motivated depends on value of positive/negative incentive eg. run longer so can eat brownie; avoid kitchen b/c watching calories -motivation affected by both in/external factors (eg. if thirsty, will up incentive of water) Achievement Motivation Achievement motive-pushes us to seek challenging tasks + significant accomplishments -if high, work hard + achieve more than those with low -measured in questionnaires (ask bout achievement), but better with projective tests (wishes) -varies with different tasks, depending on: a) Expectations about success of your effort eg. want to be basketball star, but low expectations b/c of height b) Value of success at task -likely to be more motivated if: parents value task, praised for effort (opp. if need natural intelligence) -if natural talent for something, achievement motivation will focus on that area Cultural factors: -values for certain tasks differ (affect what we want to achieve and productivity of society as whole) -value individual or collective success (if individual, more self-confidence and more easily motivated) Intrinsic Motivation -goal-directed behavior that is self-motivated -external rewards can lower interest in task (can’t enjoy it for what it is), but can also enhance creativity Why? a) Loss of control-reward controls us (we are drawing to please others, not ourselves) b) Overjustification-now reward motivates us, degrades value of task -interest lowered more if expect reward, but if given unexpectedly can increase time spend on task 11.2 Biological Needs: Hunger Internal Factors Chemical Signals-body monitors amounts of things like food in stomach, glucose, insulin, leptin Glucose-sugar needed for energy production in cells (liver reacts to change in amount or use of glucose) -if high level, lose interest in food; if low, EAT Insulin-hormone released by pancreas, pumps nutrients in blood into cells where stored as fat or metabolized into needed energy -starts to lower glucose/blood sugar level when you start eating, which makes you hungry after Leptin-hormone that may regulate amount of energy stored in fat cells, fat people have lots Brain: Ventromedial Hypothalamus-when lesioned, animal eats forever; if electrically stimulated, no interest in food even if need it (activated once we eat enough to fulfill body’s energy needs) Lateral Hypothalamus-lesion=animal doesn’t eat (starve to death); if electrically stimulated, starts eating -these explanations for hypothalamuses not fully true b/c lesion to each affects different things (eg. amnt of insulin) so not sure of exact role in how they control eating -hippocampus also involved in feeding behavior, brainstem involved in initiation of eating External Factors Eating Habits-learned, develop thru personal experience + modeling others (culture affects) (when, where, what, how much, who you eat with) Food Cues-sight of food, association with past pleasure pulls/motivates you to EAT -animals know light signals food; will eat food when light is there even if just ate Regulating Body Weight Set point-natural body weight, maybe from genetic factors (# fat cells, metabolic rate), that body wants to keep (if weight falls below, motivated to eat; vice versa Evolutionary Theories-to prevent energy deficits, if food was available, we ate it to store it b/c didn’t know when there would be food again (adaptive in natural envts, makes people fat now) Obesity-affected by metabolic rate, # fat cells, learned eating habits, cultural role models, stress Anorexia Nervosa-refusal to maintain normal weight due to fear of being overweight -genetic and psychological factors (perfectionist personality, must match social demands, low levels of certain neurotransmitters) -no menstruation (conception), low bp, lose bone density, gastrointestinal problems, DEATH Bulimia Nervosa-no control, so eat lots of junk-binge; followed by purge-forced barf; cultural influence -not life threatening, maybe no weight loss; damage intestines, nutritional probl
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