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PSYC 102
David Klonsky

Chapter. 11 – Motivation Motivation a need or desire that: a) energizes behavior and b) directs it towards a goal Theories of Motivation 1. Instinct 2. Drive-Reduction 3. Arousal 4. Hierarchy of Needs 1. Instinct Theory Instincts - complex behaviours that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned Strengths: Consistent with animal literature Weaknesses: Thousands of instincts needed to explain human behavior. Labeling, not explaining 2. Drive-Reduction Theory A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (drive)  motivates an organism to satisfy the need Need( Food, Water)  Drive ( Hunger, Thirst)  Drive Reduction Behaviours ( eating, drinking) Homeostasis - the maintenance of a steady internal state (e.g., temperature). Pushed by needs (e.g., hunger) Pulled by incentives (e.g., aroma of baking bread) Weakness – how do we explain curiosity? Play? 3. Optimum Arousal We seek optimum levels of arousal Too little = boredom, Too much = stress 4. Hierarchy of Motives Abraham Maslow (1970) – certain needs have priority over others Hunger - Basic Motivation - Can hunger be understood through a simple motivational perspective? Biology of Hunger - Stomach contractions - Glucose levels - Hypothalamus Hypothalamus - Lateral hypothalamus increases hunger - Lower mid-hypothalamus depresses hunger UBC Research - Destroying lower mid-hypothalamus produces a large rat The Psychology of Hunger Memory - amnesia patients eat frequently if given food Taste -Influenced both by body chemistry and environment/culture Eating Disorders - Drive for Thinness, Idealizing Thinness Taste Preference: Biology or Culture? hot climates spicier dishes Summary of Eating Behaviours: Biological: - mid hypothalamic centers in the brain monitoring appetite - appetite hormones - stomach pangs - set/ settling point weight - universal attraction to sweet and salty - adaptive wariness toward novel foods Psychological: - sight and smell of a variety of tasty foods - memory of time elapsed since last meal - mood Social Cultural: - culturally learned taste preferences - learned restraint in cultures idealizing thinness Sexual Motivation Nature’s clever way of making people procreate, enabling our species to survive Biology of Sexual Motivation - Sex hormones: Estrogen and Testosterone - Not exactly like hunger chemicals - Like fuel in a car - sexual maturity - sexual orientation Psychology of Sexual Motivation - External stimuli – what we see, read, hear, etc - Imagined stimuli - fantasies - Predictors of sexual restraint among adolescents: – Intelligence – Religiosity – father presence (for girls) – volunteering - Sexual fantacies Social Cultural of Sexual Motivation - family and society values - religious and personal values - cultural expectations Sexual Orientation a person’s preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same sex, the other sex, and/or either sex - In Europe and North America, homosexuality in men is 3-4% and in women is 1-2%. - In various studies, estimates range between 2 and 13% Not due to …. - Domineering/neglectful/absent father or mother - Fear or hatred of opposite gender - Current level of sex hormones in blood - Childhood sexual abuse Various environmental factors not related to sexual orientation Homosexuality exists in the animal world … Gorillas, Grizzlies, Monkeys, Flamingos, Owls, Rams (6 to 10 percent) Biology of Sexual Orientation In homosexual men… anterior hypothalamus is smaller, anterior commissure is larger Genetics of Sexual Orientation 1. Family: Homosexuality seems to run in families. 2. Twin studies: An identical twin is somewhat more likely than a fraternal twin to share their co twin’s homosexuality 3. Fruit flies: females can be genetically engineered to act like males during courtship, and males to act like females. Prenatal Hormones and Sexual Orientation 1. Animals: Exposure of a female sheep fetus to testosterone results in homosexual behaviour. 2. Humans: Exposure of a male or female fetus to female hormones results in attraction to males. The Need to Belong Separation from others increases our need to belong From an evolutionary perspective, belongingness helped: - Protect against predators, especially for the young. - Procure food. - Reproduce. Affects our … … emotions (happiness, depression) … thoughts (I want people to like me, value me) … behaviours (increase social acceptance) Motivation and Work In industrialized countries, work and satisfaction go hand-in-hand. Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology - Principles of selecting and evaluating workers. - How work environments and management styles influence worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity. - Effective leadership Interviews and Performance interviewers are confident in their ability to predict long term job performance. Not as accurate as standardized tests The Interviewer Illusion 1. Confirmation Bias 2. Anchor and Adjustment Bias Chapter 12 – Emotion Emotion A mix of: 1) physiological activation 2) expressive behaviours 3) conscious experience - Enhance survival - Focus our attention and energize out action - Strongest when we have strong want/need to avoid or obtain Theories of Emotion Commonsense View - Thought comes first (am I safe in this dark alley?), then comes emotion (fear). - First comes emotion (fear), and then comes physiological activity (heart-racing) James-Lange Theory (William James and Carl Lange) - Physiological activity precedes the emotional experience - Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)  Pounding heart( arousal)  Fear (emotion) Cannon-Bard Theory - Emotion and body's arousal are simultaneous. - Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)  Pounding heart( arousal) + Fear (emotion) Two-Factor Theory - Physical arousal + Cognitive label = Emotion - Sight of oncoming car (perception of stimulus)  Pounding heart( arousal) + Cognitive label “I’m Afraid  Fear (emotion) Embodied Emotion - Emotions involve bodily responses - Examples: Butterflies in our stomach, Racing heart, Neurons activated in the brain Autonomic Nervous System - Mobilizes us for a action - Examples: Respiration increases and supplies more oxygen, Blood gets pumped to major muscle groups Sympathetic - Arousing - Stress hormones (e.g., adrenaline) Parasympathetic - Calming - Inhibits release of stress hormones Arousal and Performance How much arousal is optimal? - depends on situation and task Physiological Similarities Fear vs. anger vs. love vs. boredom Physiological Differences - Facial muscles: fear vs. joy - Amygdala: fear vs. anger - Depression: more right frontal activity - Happiness: more left frontal activity Examples: Emotion in the Body - Mass killer with tumor near amygdala - Stimulating particular left-frontal area induces smiling, laughter, euphoria - Spinal cord patients with no bodily sensation report less intense emotions Lie Detector Tests - Liars vs. Truth-tellers experience different emotions when asked key questions - Identify these differences through physiological measurement Cognition and Emotion - What comes first? - We typically assume cognitions precede emotions - But… Spillover Phenomena - Arousal from previous event influences emotional reaction to next event - Example: Horror Movie, Anger Cognition and Emotion - Subliminally presented fearful eyes  amygdala activity - A subliminally presented happy face  more drinking of sweet beverage Two Routes to Emotion Without conscious appraisal vs. With appraisal - EmotionAppraisal  Emotional response (Lazarus/ Schachter-Singer) Emotional response (Zajonc/LeDoux) Expressed Emotion Emotions are expressed! - Face, Body, Voice intonation Perceiving Facial Expressions - Angry faces “pop out” faster than happy faces Gender and Expressive Emotion - Women better at reading non-verbal emotion - Women more often expression emotion non-verbally Origins of Emotional Expression - Darwin speculated that facial expressions preceded spoken language - Survival value! The Effects of Facial Expression - Seeing facial expressions affects how we feel Emotion Expression - Detecting Deception, Experts are 54% accurate Discrete Emotions - Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions - present in infancy, except … contempt, shame, and guilt. Levels of Emotion 1. Mood 2. Trait 3. Disorder Two Dimensions of Emotion Positive + High arousal: Joy Positive + Low arousal : Pleasant/Relaxation Negative + Low arousal: Sadness Negative + High arousal: Fear/ Anger Ekman – “Emotions Revealed” - Discrete emotions are real - Discrete emotions are universal - Discrete emotions are biologically driven, not just socially learned Fear is Adaptive - Run away from danger - Brings us closer to others - Protects us from harm Learning Fear - Not just instinctive 1) Conditioning 2) Observation The Biology of Fear - Amygdala - Some fears are easier to learn than others! What makes us angry? 1. Friends and loved ones who commit wrongdoings - willful - unjustified - avoidable 2. Foul odors, high temperatures, traffic jams, aches and pains Happiness - See world as safer - Easier decision-making - More cooperative - Rate others more favorably - Better health, energy, satisfaction Feel-good, do-good phenomenon - when we feel happy, we are more willing to help others. Happiness is Relative - Adaptation-Level Phenomenon: Like the adaptation to brightness, volume, and touch, people adapt to income levels. - Relative Deprivation: the perception that we are worse off than those we compare ourselves with Does Money = Happiness? - Small correlation between money and happiness - Sudden increase in money = temporary increase in happiness - Having very little money = less happiness Happiness and Money: Spending on Self vs. Others Three findings: - People who spend more on others are happier - People who spend more on others are happier in the future - People randomly assigned to spend $5 on others (rather than themselves) are happier afterwards Chapter 14 – Stress and Health Leading Causes of Death in Canada - Half attributed to people’s behaviour!!! - Effects of Stress-related health-risk behaviours - Smoking - Alcoholism - unprotected sex - insufficient exercise - Drugs - poor nutrition Behavioural Medicine - Integrates behavioural knowledge with medical knowledge - Goals - life expectancy - reduce suffering - quality of life Health Psychology - Psychological contribution to behavioural medicine - Average medical school has 30 psychologists on faculty - Compared to an average of 2 in the 1950s! - Emotion and personality - Attitudes and behaviours - Perceptions of situation - Reduce and control stress Stress - Occurs in any circumstance (real or perceived) that threatens a person’s well-being. - Process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges - Can be beneficial in small doses, or harmful if intense or prolonged The Stress Response (Walter Canon 1929) - Fight-or-flight - outpouring of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the inner adrenal glands - increasing heart and respiration rates - mobilizing sugar and fat - dulling pain General Adaptation Syndrome Three-phase stress response Phase 1: Alarm reaction (mobile resources) Phase 2: Resistance (cope with stressor) Phase 3: Exhaustion (reserves depleted) If Stress is Adaptive, Why is it Bad? - Designed to cope with intense, short-lived stressors (short Phase 2) - In modern society, we spend lots of time in Phase 2 Stressors in Daily Life - Rush hour traffic, long lines, job stress, burn-out Stressful Life Events - highest: 18-19 - decreases after 18-19 Physical Consequences of Stress - Telomeres (DNA pieces) get shorter, preventing cell replication - Stress-prone rats live 600 vs. 700 days - Chronic stressors shrunken hippocampus Psychological Consequences - Earthquakes, combat stress, floods, death of a loved one, loss of job, divorce depression, sleeplessness, anxiety, physical disease Stress and the Heart - Stress  elevated blood pressure  coronary heart disease a clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle Stress Types Type A - more competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, angry -more coronary heart disease Type B - easygoing, relaxed Pessimists are more likely to develop coronary heart disease Psychophysical Illness - Any stress-related physical illness - Examples: hypertension or headaches Immune System During stress … energy is mobilized away from the immune system … immune system more vulnerable Stress and AIDS - Accelerate progression from HIV  AIDS - Psychosocial programs improve course of HIV/AIDS - Behavioral/Psychological Interventions to Slow Spread of AIDS Stress and Cancer - Stress does not create cancer cells - Unclear if stress influences the progression of cancer. - Avoiding stress and having a hopeful attitude does not reverse advanced cancer. Promoting Health - absence of disease - preventing illness - enhancing well-being Coping with Stress - Coping - reducing stress -Problem-focused coping - changing events that cause stress - changing how we react to stress - Emotion-focused coping - attending to our own emotional needs - when we cannot change a stressful situation Perceived Control - Why does perceived control influence stress? - Losing control  outpouring of stress hormones Explanatory Style Optimistic (instead of pessimistic) style - more control over stressors - cope better with stressful events - have better moods - have a stronger immune system Social Support Social support predicts survival in healthy and diseased populations! Managing Stress and Health 1. Sense of control 2. Optimistic explanatory style 3. Social support Aerobic Exercise Aerobic exercise can … … ∧ energy … ∧ self-confidence … ∨ tension … ∨ depression … ∨anxiety … Improves mood and wel
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