Instincts: unlearned characteristic patterns of responding that are controlled by specific triggering stimuli in the world; not thought to be an important factor in explaining goal-directed behaviour in humans. Instincts share properties with reflexes, but are more complex. Instincts eventually fell out of favour as an accepted explanation for goal directed human behaviour because you couldn"t confirm or categorize it. External factors: incentive motivation: drive itself cannot explain motivated behaviour, goal directed behaviour needs to connect the drive reduction with what people learn from experience. Cultural factors: different societies have different standards for achievement, the standards set by a society influence what members of the society seek to achieve and perhaps the level of productivity of the society as a whole. Internal facts controlling hunger: people show little interest in food when they"re full, connection between volume and content of food in the stomach and the amount that neurons will fire in certain areas of the brain.