PSYC 207 Chapter Notes -Pocketknife, Small Cell, Blood Vessel

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
UBC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 207
Professor
Organization of the Motor System 10/15/2012 9:30:00 PM
Movement
-entire nervous system = motor system = functions to move body
1. visual system must first inspect
2. Information relayed to visual cortex to corticomotor regions (plan and
initiate movement)
3. Send instructions to part of spinal cord that controls particular muscles
4. Sensory receptors travel to spinal cord
5. Messages relayed back up to sensory regions that interpret touch
*Sensory cortex informs the motor cortex of the event occurring
•Basal ganglia (under frontal cortex) = produce appropriate amount of force
•Cerebellum = regulate timing & correct errors
The Neocortex & Initiation of Movement
1. Posterior Sensory Cortex:
-Specify movement goals & send info to …
2. Prefrontal Cortex
-Generates plans for movement
-Direct routes = execute automatic movement
-Indirect routes = movement requiring conscious control
3. Premotor cortex
-Contain repertoire of movements to sequence
-Recognize movement of others & select similar/different actions
4. Motor cortex
-Executes/produces specific, appropriate movement
•Movement Hierarchy
A) Simple : controlled by motor cortex (push a button)
B) Sequence : additionally controlled by premotor cortex
C) Complex: controlled by prefrontal, temporal, parietal cortex (maze)
Identifying the Motor Cortex with the Use of Electrical Stimulation
•Wilder Penfield
-Used brief electrical impulses to map cortices of human patients
(about to undergo neurosurgery)
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-Most movements triggered by stimulation of precentral gyrus (primary
motor cortex)
-Movement can be produced by stimulating dorsal part of premotor cortex
(supplementary motor cortex)
-Body is symmetrical: each hemisphere contains almost-mirror image of
homunculi (found 4 in total)
-Homunculi: disproportionate to relative sizes of body parts
(Larger brain areas = more complex body functions)
Multiple representations in the Motor Cortex
-Motor cortex not organized for control of individual muscles but control of
movements
-Different classes of homunculi represent different classes of movement
-Electrical stimulation in a monkey
A) Defensive facial expression
B) hand to mouth
C) manipulation & shaping of hand/digits in central body space
D) outward reach with hand
E) Climbing & leaping posture
*Smooth and coordinated movement!
Graziano:
*Implies that there are many maps of the body
-Motor cortex represents 3 types of organization
1. part of the body that is to be moved
2. spatial location to which the movement is directed
3. function
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Document Summary

*sensory cortex informs the motor cortex of the event occurring: basal ganglia (under frontal cortex) = produce appropriate amount of force, cerebellum = regulate timing & correct errors. The neocortex & initiation of movement: posterior sensory cortex: Specify movement goals & send info to : prefrontal cortex. Indirect routes = movement requiring conscious control: premotor cortex. Recognize movement of others & select similar/different actions: motor cortex. Executes/produces specific, appropriate movement: movement hierarchy, simple : controlled by motor cortex (push a button, sequence : additionally controlled by premotor cortex, complex: controlled by prefrontal, temporal, parietal cortex (maze) Identifying the motor cortex with the use of electrical stimulation: wilder penfield. Used brief electrical impulses to map cortices of human patients (about to undergo neurosurgery) Most movements triggered by stimulation of precentral gyrus (primary motor cortex) Movement can be produced by stimulating dorsal part of premotor cortex (supplementary motor cortex)

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