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PSYC 207 (7)


9 Pages

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PSYC 207
Michael Souza

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Memory Chapter 18 10/23/2012 9:43:00 PM HM: -Suffered from stroke, therefore underwent bilateral medial-temporal lobe resection to stop -Result: Anterograde amnesia -Part of hippocampus removed -Exhibits severe explicit-memory defects but competent at some kinds of implicit learning -Milner: mirror task, HM improves but have no explicit memory in completing KC -lesions in right ventral frontal cortex ->medial temporal lobes -severe amnesia for personal experiences (whole life) -Cognitive capabilities intact, language/reading/writing/attention intact -asymmetrical retrograde amnesia (episodic memory lost, semantic memory spared) Multiple Memory Systems Long term memory: 1. Explicit (conscious) -Episodic: •Personal •Autobiographical -Semantic: •Facts •Knowledge 2. Implicit (Unconscious) -skills -Habits -Priming -Conditioning 3. Emotional (Both) -Attraction -Avoidance -Fear Short term memory: -sensory -Motor -cognitive LEARNING AND AMNESIA Temporal lobe: different structures within temporal lobes = different kinds of memory More tissue damage=greater impairments in learning & memory Not possible to demonstrate isolated localization of memory Varieties of Amnesia •Infantile amnesia •Fugue state •Transient Global Amnesia •Anterograde & Retrograde •Time-Dependent Retrograde Amnesia Theories of Retrograde Amnesia -How are old memories preserved and recent ones lost? •Consolidation theory •Multiple-Trace theory •Reconsolidation theory *Suggest that either storage, type of memory, or # times memory used = contributes to temporal gradient of retrograde amnesia MULTIPLE LONG-TERM MEMORY SYSTEMS -Daniel Schacter: -Beginning of modern memory revolution (1980s) -Memory comes from different forms -Study HM, new approach to neural basis of memory •Implicit Memories •Explicit Memories •Emotional Memories *How to tell apart: -Priming: implicit memory in amnesia will remember an object, thus performing tasks as well as normal people explicit memory: amnesic patients can’t remember that they saw the object before QUESTION -Depth-of-processing effect -Study-Test modality shift DIFFUSE DAMAGE AND EXPLICIT MEMORY •Herpes -Damage to temporal lobes = severe memory impairment -Anterograde amnesia: along with medial temporal cortex, additional damage to lateral temporal cortex, insula, and medial frontal cortex = + retrograde amnesia -Insula: active during well-practiced verbal task, inactive = perform novel verbal task, also accesses previously acquired memories •Alzheimer’s Disease -Progressive loss of cells & development of abnormalities in cortex 1. anterograde amnesia (medial temporal cortex affected first) 2. retrograde amnesia (then spread to other regions) *Explicit memory suffers first, then implicit memory suffers Korsakoff’s Syndrome -Long-term alcoholism (+ malnutrition/Thiamine=Vitamin B1) = defects in memory -Reduced activity in frontal lobes -6 major symptoms: 1. anterograde amnesia 2. retrograde amnesia 3. confabulation (patients produce insincere/shallow stories & not admit to memory loss) 4. meager (lacking in quantity/quality) content in conversation 5. Lack of insight 6. Apathy (lose interest quickly & indifferent to change) Treatment: arrest w/ massive doses of vitamin B1 but not reversed Damage: medial thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebral atrophy Ascending Systems Critical for Explicit Memory In animals: one lesion ≠ amnesia, but conjoint = amnesia 1. Cholinergenic -Alzheimer’s -Cells in basal forebrain -> frontal & temporal lobes -Help maintain normal EEG 2. Serotinergic -Cells in midbrain -> limbic system & cortex -Help maintain normal EEG 3. Noradrenergic *Damage to Serotinergic & Cholinergic: profound amnesia, behave as if entire neocortex is removed, no longer display intelligent behavior *Damage to Cholinergenic & Noradrenergic: extremely impaired on learning tasks NEURAL SUBSTRATES OF IMPLICIT MEMORY Basal Ganglia -Huntington’s -implicit memory Motor Cortex -Pursuit Rotor Task -Subject must keep stylus in contact with rotating metal disc, which is also rotating -Implicit knowledge = requires reorganization of motor cortex (not required for explicit) Cerebellum -Classical conditioning -Neocortex not necessary for development of conditioned response NEURAL SUBSTRATES OF EMOTIONAL MEMORY Amygdala •Fear conditioning -Because the conditioned response is emotional, circuits of AMYGDALA mediate -NOT cerebellum -Damage to amygdala: no emotional memory, little effect on other systems -Close connections w/ medial temporocortical structures & rest of cortex -Connected to implicit-memory system through basal ganglia -Activate hormonal & brain systems -Both explicit and implicit experiences NEURAL SUBSTRATES OF SHORT-TERM
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