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Chapter 5

PSYC 217 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Extraversion And Introversion, Agreeableness

Course Code
PSYC 217
Victoria Savalei

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Cozby chapter 5
Pg. 92-93, 99-109
Operational definition - the specific method used to manipulate or measure the variable
Some operational definitions are higher quality than others
Scales: self-report measures
NEO Personal Inventory (NEO-PI) – measures five major dimensions of
personality: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and
Understanding the concepts of reliability and validity will help evaluate the
quality of existing measures as well as those operational definitions created
Validity of Measures
Reliable = repeatable
Valid = true = supported by available evidence
Construct Validity – adequacy of the operational definition of variables
Used to denote a variable that is abstract and needs an operational definition
Degree to which the operational definition of a variable actually reflects the true
theoretical meaning of the variable
Variables can be measured and manipulated in a variety of ways, there is never a
perfect operational definition of a variable
Indicators of Construct Validity
1. Face Validity
The evidence for validity is that the content of the measure appears to
actually measure the variable
Example: Psychopathy appear to be closely related to charm, low
empathy, pathological lying, thus this measure has high face validity
Preference of the color red would reduce the face validity of the measure
because on the surface it doesn’t make sense that color preference would
be related to psychopathy
2. Content Validity
Comparing the content of the measure with the theoretical definition f the
Example: Hare’s PCL-R includes questions intended to measure all four
3. Predictive Validity
Research that uses a measure to predict some future behavior
Construct validity is supported when scores on the measure predict future
behaviors that are relevant to construct
Example: a scale that intends to measure psychopathy among criminals
should be able to predict future convictions
4. Concurrent Validity
Research that examines the relationship between the measure and a
criterion behavior at the same time
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