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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Psychoanalysis

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 305
Steven Barnes

Chapter 3 Personality Psych Douglas P. Crowne Freud thought that personality was both biological and psychological and consisted of processes within a person Elemental features of personality are insistent motives; a planner, doer, motive- gratifier and motive restrainer; and a conscience, expressing propriety and morality. 5 points to keep in mind the agencies of personality are largely unconscious, so we are unaware of the reasons why we act as we do. 3 agencies: 1. Expresses wishes for instinctual gratification appears at birth 2. Agent of plans, actions, motive satisfaction and motive denial. 3. Conscience is last, its arrival concludes personality development Development of personality occurs in different stages that are sexualized and important for adulthood personality Unconscious mental life is not readily accessed. Freudian slips, free association, disguised and during sleep Psychoanalysis helps to understand phenomena, individual social aggression, the attitudes of a people toward leaders, literary creation Defensive processes, and the nature and extent of the unconscious Traumatic events and the symptoms of neurosis Disturbance as a child can have serious neurotic consequences Disturbance can come from conflict between wishes and fantasies. Symptoms are a constant reminder instinctual urges  wish denial conflict Instincts, the unconscious, and defenses Mind is both psychological and biological, specially true of the theory of instincts The elemental drives that motivate humans are internal bodily stimuli that compel the mind to work with both to provide an acceptable measure of fulfillment and to discipline instincts and regulate them, by forceful defensive processes the constant pressure that instincts exert for full and immediate expression and gratification Significant part of the personality is unconscious. Ego keeps instincts in their place as unconscious The 3 parts of personality Id  instincts Ego  restraining instincts Superego  moral agency Personality development st Life of the mind starts in earliest childhood, and its 1 expression is an instinctual wish. Children are sexual creatures from infancy  not in a genital sense but the sexualized urge for pleasurable stimulation 3 sensitive bodily zones- mouth, anus, and genitals They mature sequentially in childhood: no stage that reflects can be omitted. And if it is too lax or too repressive it can vastly damage growing children and the fully developed adults. Psychoanalysis is more than a theory of personality disturbance  it is a struggle of human beings struggling to make their loves in society The major concepts of psychoanalysis Freud sought though his choice of terms and use of language to bring our most intimate and personal parts, the deepest elements of our personalities into clear and understandable view The Id The driving force Represents the biological stratum of personality in the form of imperative wishes Utter intolerance of frustration, seeks to discharge tension immediately  pleasure principle The pleasure principle has 2 mechanisms: Reflex action: pursuing pleasure and avoiding pain: sucking, sneezing, coughing, and other reflexes that discharges uncomfortable tension automatically Primary process: most imp mechanism of the id. Discharges tension by means of hallucination of objects that will satisfy an instinct Wish fulfillment: when a wish is fulfilled as the expression of the primary process Instincts have 4 attributes: Source: of an instinct is a state if need. Ex: nutritional deficiency or a sexual arousal Aim: removal of tension, always the same Object: refers to environmental object or a person that will reduce the state of excitation and the things that need to take place before need is satisfied Impetus: is the strength of an instinct. The greater the depravation the greater the impetus Repetition Compulsion: Instinctual life is cyclical Need is aroused and excitation increases, with gratification of the instinct, its aim is fulfilled and the person is quiescent. Repetition compulsion also refers to the preservative repetition of inadequate and unsuccessful attempts to gratify instincts Life instincts: have individual survival and species preservation as their purpose. Ex: hunger and sex Libido is the motor of the life instincts Death instincts: are responsible for behavior that is destructive to others and to ourselves All of us have the wish to die  unconscious Displacement  aggressiveness that is self-destructive is directed toward others Rarely a rational process When our instincts are frustrated we attack those who we think are responsible The cardinal instinct of personality is sex The Id has only the most primitive mechanisms for instinctual gratification- Reflex action and primary process The Ego The ego emerges in the earliest infancy The ego is the actor, the executor of personality Functions of ego: Ego must plan, cope with delay, and restrain Engage in defense, holding back those wishes of the ID that cannot be gratified or whose gratification must be made to conform to social rules Remember past punishments and anticipate them again Ego reacts to a reality principle and uses the secondary process  which invokes realistic and appropriate means of attaining need satisfaction, and in this is doing he job set by the ID The ego has independence but it owes its existence to the id Ego copes from outside and from within, when danger is recognized anxiety appears 3 types of anxiety of the ego: reality anxiety  fear of realistic danger in the environment neurotic anxiety when dangerous instincts of the id are poised too break through moral anxiety --> type of guilt/ when superego condemns cathexis  an investment of energy in an object associated with instinctual gratification anti-cathexis or defense mechanisms  functions to prevent that investment of energy, they are unconscious distort reality distortion occurs as denial, falsification or blocking, that is repression Distorting mechanisms: Reaction formation  makes intolerable feelings harmless by transforming them into their opposites (homophobia) Projection  entails the attribution to others of wishes and feeling that are intolerable to our own egos, making them appear as external threats that can be defended against Fixation and regression  Regression occurs when a child traumatized by anxiety returns to an earlier oral stage When we regress in adulthood, it is usually to at level at which we showed childhood fixation Undoing  neutralizes an unconscionable idea or act by following it with another that negates the first as if it never happened Inward investment in external object choices and a great preoccupation with the self  narcissism Freud believed that schizophrenia was untreatable The superego The voice of society and our parents who taught us what not to do and demanded to live up to an ideal moral element in of personality or conscience the self to which we aspire  the ego ideal resist temptation and behave decently too severe, too demanding, too condemning The stages of personality development in the developing infant and young child, 3 areas of the body emerge in sequence as erogenous zones, which when stimulated give a sexualized pleasure Psychosexual stages: Oral stage (tongue, chicks and lips) Begins with the need of food and a pleasurable sensation 2 subperiods: incorporative: 1 6 months pleasure derives from sucking & nursing, and stimulation of the oral cavity produces an immediate response infants start to spit out the food they dislike and this is enjoyable oral sadistic: rejecting things they don't like is highly enjoyable fixation  in any stage of development, frustration and threat that flood the child’s ego with anxiety, or excessive indulgence people who are oral fixated: use biting sarcasm verbal abuse hostility relationships are marked by anger, resentment, and defiance dependent gullible passive The anal stage Infant less responsive to oral stimulation. 2 periods: Pleasure form expulsion of waste material  anal expulsive period. Anal retentive  pleasure coming from the ability of controlling and retain feces Problems during this stage: defiance and submission, a power to struggle between parents and children Fixated: become miserly and obstinate, unable to love, obsessed with a strong interest in amassing possessions Freud believed that defection is both biologically necessary and psychologically laudable The phallic stage Profound consequences for personality development Libidinal energy is in the genital region, manipulation of genitals where playing with himself and engaging in an autoerotic behavior Oedipus complex  greek and shows up in dreams, the boy develops desires for his mother when he is 3 or 4, then the little boy comes to fear that his yearning for his mother wil
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