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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 and 14 Notes.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 305
Sunaina Assanand

Chapter 12: The Cognitive Perspective (287-298, 304-314)  Cognitive psychology emerged in the 1970’s-1980’s  Focuses on how people represent the their experiences  Based on two assumptions o Necessary to understand how individuals perceive/ behave the information around them o Decisions are made consciously but more frequently, unconsciously  Personality is reflected in the decisions that you make in your mind Representing Your Experience of the World  Schemas and their Development o Schemas:  An organization of knowledge in memory  Developed when certain qualities repeatedly occur  Includes perceptual images, abstract knowledge, emotions o Exemplars:  A specific example of a schema that an individual has o Prototype:  The best idealized member within a schema  Hockey player = schema  Sedin, Luongo, Kesler = exemplars  Wayne Gretzky = prototype o Fuzzy Set  Criteria set for a schema that is not necessary to fit into the category o Schemas are used to recognize new experiences and easily identify new events more quickly o Perception is based on incoming information and on our present schemas  Effects of Schema o Effect #1:  Stores new information in memory better o Effect #2:  Directs where to look for information o Effect #3  Predicts what you will find and sets up expectations which further solidifies schema o Effect #4:  Uses schema’s default information to fill in missing information from memory  Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, Scripts, and Procedural Knowledge o Semantic memory  Incorporates objects and concepts along with emotions related to it o Episodic memory  Memory for events that incorporates a sense of space and time  Events are strung together by the events as they happened after the other o Script  Prototype of an event  When an episode occurs many times, we develop scripts o Semantic and episodic memory are typically code at once o Feeling are also important qualities that are coded in the schema  ex. threat to certain qualities will have survival benefits and therefore developed to recognize possible threats o Procedural Knowledge  Knowledge about doing, about engaging specific behaviours and mental manipulations  Hard to gain conscious control  Forms different schematic structures when used in different contexts  Socially Relevant Schema o Social cognition  how categories form from social meaningful stimuli  Self-Schemas o Self-Schema  A schema developed for yourself and causes you to remember things that fit this schema  Often leads to bias of recall and perception of past events to fit with the self- schema o Self-schema is larger, more complex, contains more emotional elements than other schemas o Self-Complexity  The distinction of self-image from different self-aspects  Low self-complexity  Bad events in one aspect will spill over to other aspects in their life  High self-complexity  Distinct self-aspect causes bad even in one aspect to not affect the self- aspect in other areas  Are less emotionally-affected by negative outcomes  Entity Vs Incremental Schemas o Self-Schema variation can depend on an individual think of their own abilities o Entity:  Believe ability that more or less does not change o Increment  Believe ability that can be increased through experience o View of either an entity or increment ingrains into your personality and leads to different experiences  Entity believe that performing a task is proving their ability  If negative experience will become distressed and want to quit  Attend to cues of consistency  Incremental believe that performing a task will be extending their ability  if negative experience, will strive to improve themselves  attend to cues of change  Attribution: o Inferring the cause of an event o Relies on schemas and default values to help make inferences o Bernie Weiner  Proposed 4 dimensional causes (locus of causality)  Internal vs External o Internal = Ability/effort o External = Chance, task difficulty, others  Stability vs Instable o Individuals have different attributional tendencies  Failure due to unstable factors = need not worry about future  Since cause is unstable the situation will probably not be the same next time  Failure due to stable factors = lack of ability/world against you  Will repeat over and over again and lead to more failure o Seeing stable and permanent reasons for bad life outcomes is related to depression, sickness and death Activation of Memories:  Nodes o Areas of memory storage and link to other nodes if related in thought processes o Semantic connections  Nodes are linked to groups/ categories  Ex. Linking orange and fruit o Episodic connections  Links formed to create an event  Ex. Drive to store then park at parking lot o Information that are highly associated will be strongly linked and others that have very few associations are weakly linked o When memory node activates, it brings information to consciousness o When one node activates, it partially activates other nodes that are related to it o Partial activation of other nodes creates faster and easier information retrieval o Partial activation may not be enough to activate a node, it often requires an extra boost to full activate the node  If no partial activation, the extra boost would not sufficiently activate the node  Priming and the Use of Information o Priming  Process of activating a node by a task that precedes the task of interest  Studies two questions  1) whether the same information is more accessible later? o Does activation slowly fade? o Implies that partial activation still be accessible for some time as long node is still activated  2) whether related information becomes more accessible after the priming  Results: o Srull and Wyer made people read “hostile” word and they portrayed ambiguous person as more hostile and rated them more negatively (spreading of “hostile” node to nodes relating to negative traits o Primed information only works on plausible occurrences  Ex, dishonest would not affect judgement of athletic ability o Priming occurs on a dimensional level  Priming “honest” will also activate other end of the spectrum, “dishonest” o The most accessible categories are the ones more frequently use and each individual develops these differently depending on experience  Changes how people interpret the world o Activation of information that relates to behaviour can affect behaviour  Increases tendencies to react a certain way  Nonconscious influences on behaviour o Subliminal primes- primes that are outside of awareness  Can have same effect as conscious primes o Consciousness is where judgements and decisions are thought out o Conscious processes can become routine and slip outside our awareness such that you
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