Look at yourself/introspection or others (problems: distort what you see, can"t get into their head) Personology-study whole person, not just one aspect (henry murray) Many case studies are also clinical studies (person has problem) In many examples, variables/dimensions go together in a systematic way (look at. Correlation coefficient-shows how strong correlation is (1. 0 means perfect positive. 0. 6-0. 8 is strong, 0. 3-0. 5 is moderately strong, below 0. 3 or 0. 2 is weak (more strength + direction) correlation) scatter) Statistical significance-the likelihood of an obtained effect occurring when there is no true effect. When probability is small enough, the correlation is said to be statistically significant. Clinical/practical significance-when correlation is believable (statistical significance) and large enough to have practical importance (eg. can have high s. s. but only account for tiny bit of behavior-low p. s. ) Causality-variation in one dimension causes variation in another (explains the why) 3rd-variable problem-possibility that an unmeasured variable caused variations in 2 correlated variables.