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Social psych ch 3.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 308
Professor
Steven Barnes
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 3 Social Psych -The social self  The capacity for self-reflection is necessary for people to feel as if they understand their own motives and emotions and the causes of their behavior  The self is heavily influenced by social factors  ABC’s of the self: A for affect, b for behavior and C for cognition Self-concept  “Cocktail party effect” the tendency for people to pick a personally relevant stimulus, like a name, out of a complex and noisy environment o human beings are selective in their attention  self-concept  The sum total of an individual’s beliefs about his or her own personal attributes.  Self concept is made up of cognitive molecules called self- schemas  self-schema  A belief people hold about themselves that guides the processing of self-relevant information. Rudiments of self-concept  Consciousness is like a spotlight where the self is front and center  Our sense of identity is biologically rooted  The synaptic connections in the brain provide the biological base for memory, needed for a normal identity  The self can be transformed and even completely destroyed by severe head injuries, brain tumors, diseases, and exposure to toxic substances that damage the brain and nervous system.  Self is a frame of reference that powerfully influences our thoughts, feelings and behavior.  Only great apes but not other animals are capable of self- recognition  In apes self-recognition emerges in young adolescence and us stable across the life span st  Self-recognition is the 1 expression of the concept me  Mirror test used to measure the self-concepts What makes the self and a self concepts?  The ability to see yourself as a distinct entity in the world  evolution and development  Social factors  Cooley’s theory of looking-glass self  other people serve as a mirror in which we see ourselves  The self is relational  draws on past and current relationships  Self-concepts mach our perceptions of what others think of us  Self-concepts come from: introspection, perceptions of our behavior, other people, autobiographical memories and cultures. Introspection  Self-knowledge is derived from introspection, a looking inward at one’s own thoughts and feelings  Private thoughts, feelings, and other inner states, not just behavior  Wilson aid introspection can impair self-knowledge: o Humans fail to understand own thoughts, feelings and behaviors o Self assessment: people overestimate their positives o Self enhancement : overrate their own skills  affective forecasting  The process of predicting how one would feel in response to future emotional events.  impact bias  people overestimate the strength and duration of emotional reactions. 2 reasons: o negative events – people don't appreciate the extent to which our coping mechanisms help to cushion  more likely to overlook the coping mechanisms that other use o we neglect to take into account the effects of other ife experiences Self-Perceptions  self-perception theory  The theory that when internal cues are difficult to interpret, people gain self-insight by observing their own behavior.  We have limits for self-perception  people do not infer their own internal states from behaviors that occurred in the presence of compelling situational pressures like reward and punishment  People learn about themselves through self-perceptions only when the situation alone seems insufficient to have their own behavior  Vicarious self-perception  inferring something about yourself by observing the behavior in someone else  Simine Vazire self-other knowledge asymmetry (SOKA)  model in which she predicts that we know ourselves better than others do when it comes to traits that are internal or hard to observe and that there is no self-other difference when it comes to traits that are external and easy to observe o Others are also better at identifying our observable traits or “blind spots” since others see it more objectively o Self ratings were more accurate for internal non- evaluative traits but friends ratings were more accurate for internal evaluative traits Self perceptions and emotions  facial feedback hypothesis  The hypothesis that changes in facial expression can lead to corresponding changes in emotion. o Can evoke and magnify certain emotional states o 80 muscles and 7,000 expressions  smiling causes facial muscles to increase the flow of air- cooled blood in the brain, a process that produces pleasure by lowering brain temperature  frowning decreases brain temperature.  Emotional state revealed by the way you carry yourself Self-perceptions of motivation  Intrinsic motivation  originates in factors within a person/ engage in activity for their own sake  Extrinsic motivation  originates in factors outside the person for a tangible benefit.  Overjustification effect  The tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with reward or other extrinsic factors. o an expected reward undermined children’s intrinsic motivation. o Children who received an unexpected reward did not loose interest o People are more creative when they are not compelled by outside forces o Bonus -> enhances intrinsic motivation by providing positive feedback  Those who received a reward became less likely to help later when the reward was no longer available  tangible rewards undermined altruistic tendencies Influences other people  Self-description indicates that the self is “relative”, a social construct and each of us defines ourselves in part by using family members, friends, acquaintances, and others as a benchmark  social comparison theory  The theory that people evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselves to others.  People turn to others for comparative info when more objective means of self evaluation are not available  We look to others when they are similar to us  two-factor theory of emotion  The theory that the experience of emotion is based on two factors: physiological arousal and a cognitive interpretation of that arousal. 2 factors: o person must experience physiological arousal o person must make a cognitive interpretation that explains the source or arousal Autobiographical memories  Flashbulb memories  to describe enduring, detailed, high- resolution recollections and speculated that humans are biologically equipped for survival purposes to “print” dramatic events in memory  Autobiographical memory vital and can be shaped by our identity  Everyone’s memories are centered on the self o Lower grddes are recalled with least accuracy o Use 3 person pronouns to describe past actions that no longer fit current selves Culture and self-concept  2 cultural orientations: collectivism and individualism  collectivism  virtues of interdependence, cooperation, and social harmony. US, Canada, Australia, Netherlands  individualism  virtues of independence, autonomy, and self- reliance. Venezuela, Columbia, peru, Taiwan, china  cultural orientation colors the way people perceive, evaluate, and present themselves. o North Americans overestimate their contributions to team efforts, seize credit for success and blame others for failure  Dialecticism  An Eastern system of thought that accepts the coexistence of contradictory characteristics within a single person.  European Americans portray their true selves  Asian Americans vary their self concept to suit different relationship situations  Latinos describe themselves with simpatico-related terms (likeable, friendly)  American culture is more individualistic today than a half a century ago more focused with money, fame and self-image Self-esteem  self-esteem  An affective component of the self, consisting of a person’s positive and negative self-evaluations.  Esteem  Latin to “estimate or appraise”  People view parts of the self differently: o High or low self esteem o Stable or unstable o Highly responsive and overly sensitive to criticism The need for self-esteem  Sociometer theory  maintains that people are inherently social animals and that the desire for self-esteem is driven by a more primitive need to connect with others and gain their approval
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