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Chapter 4

Chapter 4_Social CognitionBOOK.docx

17 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 308
Professor
Myriam Juda

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Description
SocialCognitionThinkingaboutPeopleandSituationsWHYSTUDYSOCIALCOGNITIONSocialcognitionoIsthestudyofhowpeoplethinkaboutthesocialworldandarriveatjudgmentsthathelptheminterpretthepastunderstandthepresentandpredictthefutureoLargelybasedonconstrualToreallyunderstandhowapersonwillreactinagivensituationwemustunderstandhowthepersonexperiencesthesituationoSocialstimulirarelyinfluencebehaviordirectlytheydosoindirectlythroughthewaytheyareinterpretedandconstruedoStudyingsocialjudgmenthelpspsychologistsunderstandhowpeoplethinkaboutotherindividualsandmakeinferencesaboutthemScrutinizingmistakesdoesthisandsometimeslearninghowthesemistakesarehandledorexperiencedTHEINFORMATIONAVAILABLEFORSOCIALCOGNITIONMinimalinformationInferringPersonalityfromPhysicalappearanceAlthoughwehavelittleinformationaboutsomeonewestilltendtomakeinferencesaboutapersonorsituationTendtomakesnapjudgmentsoResearchWillisandTodorovShowedparticipantsalargeamountoffacesandgavethemtimesthtomakejudgments1second12second110ofasecondStudyrevealedaconsistenttrendwithallparticipantsdidnotvaryfromthedifferenttimerestraintssuggestingweareabletoconcludeaboutpeoplebasedontheirfacesalmostinstantaneouslyoTrustanddominanceoTudorovetalShowedabunchoffacestoparticipantswithneutralexpressionsandaskedthemtoratethemonpersonalitydimensionsCorrelationsrevealedtwodimensionsthatstandout1Positivenegativedimensionaassessmentwhethersomeoneistrustworthyornottrustworthyaggressiveornotaggressive2powerdimensionaconfidentorbashfuldominantorsubmissiveothisstudysuggeststhatpeoplearesettomakehighlyfunctionaljudgmentsaboutothersthetwodimensionsareimportantduetothattheyarenaturalhumancuesthatserveafunction1Whethertoavoidapproachsomeonedimension1or2Whereyoustandonthepowerhierarchydimension2oTudorovthencreatedfacesbasedonthese2dimensionswiththetypicalfeaturesofthetwodimensionsExroundeyesroundjawbabyfacenotaggressiveandtrustworthyandlessdominantExsmallforeheadsmalleyesdefinedjawrevealstheindividuallookshostileaggressiveanduntrustworthyThuswhenweseeanadultwithababyfaceweautomaticallyjudgethemasharmlessAsnotedbyethnologistKonradLorenzcutenessofamammalianspeciestriggershardwiredautomaticreactionthathelpstoensurethattheyoungandhelplessreceiveadequatecareoThesestudiesrevealthatwehaveautomaticresponsestojudgepeoplebasedontheirfaceswhichtendstocreateaskewedunderstandingofanindividualExbabyfacetendstoreceivemorefavorabletreatmentincourtbuthashardertimefindingajobTheaccuracyofsnapjudgmentsoVerylittleproofonwhetherpeoplecanjudgefacialfeaturesinaccordancetotheirjudgmentofpersonalityoBUTpeopletendtohavelikejudgmentsatfirstglanceExparticipantsshown2photosofademocratandarepublicanandaskedwhoismorecompetentResultsshowedthatthosejudgedmorecompetentbymostoftheparticipantswon69percentoftheracesoAnotherexperimentshowedstudentsasilentvideoofaprofessorteachingaclassandaskedtojudgeonafewpersonalitycharacteristicsactivewarmandcompetentFindingsfoundthatthestudyresultspositivelycorrelatedwithstudentevaluationsattheendofthesemesterMisleadingFirsthandInformationPluralisticIgnoranceFirsthandinfotendstobemuchmoreaccurateduetothatithasnotbeenfilteredbyanyoneelseButitcanalsobedeceptiveduetothatwemaynotbeattentivewhensomethingoccursrightbeforeoureyesandcanalsobeunrepresentativeduetothatwemayhaveabiasedopinionormaybequicktomakeajudgmentoExmeetingonekidfromKwantlenandsayingtheyareallweirdosWealsosometimesacquireinformationweextractfromothersbehaviorthatmaynotactuallybeatruereflectionoftheirtraitsorbeliefsresultinginerrorsinjudgment
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