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PSYCH 309 - Lecture 23 (Social Hierarchy) - Nov 28.docx

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PSYC 309
Todd Handy

Lecture 23 – November 28, 2013 – Social Hierarchy • Social interactions – differences in power between individuals Social Power [From Office Space] • Why is this guy trying to avoid his boss Friday afternoon? • Tries to get out of the office before his boss comes around • “I need you to come in tomorrow… and Sunday too” • Power dynamic – employee trying to avoid boss, knows what’s coming o No choice, don’t want to get fired o Has social power over him; only way is to avoid him Keltner (2003) What determines power? Power can vary between 2 different individuals • Individual Variables o Personality traits, physical characteristics - Some people more bossy, some more passive • Dyadic Variables o Interest in relationship (want their affection, indifferent), relative commitment • Within-Group Variables o Authority/position/role, status (e.g. professor and students) • Between-Group Variables o Ethnicity, gender, class, ideology, majority/minority [from Office Space] • Humor built around power in this movie • Peter – Hates his work, his boss, unhappy with relationship – passive • Missed work on Saturday, have meeting with consultants – see who to layoff o Goes to hypnotist – disinhibited state, can’t get out of it o Says he comes to work late, don’t do work, “don’t care” • What are the consequences if you don’t have power, but start manifest behaviour consistent with it? • All these subtleties – typically the person with power to ask “any more questions”  before the other person leaves Keltner (2003) • Cookie – Impose power on one person, made a leader o Tendency for person in power to grab extra cookie? o Disinhibition – make a mess when they eat • Flirting – how much flirting was going on? o Power – more flirting • GENDER FACTOR: Females more likely to grab extra cookie if they had power; males – no difference between low/high power just as likely to go for extra cookie • Flirting - Guy with power more likely to flirt than guy with lower power • Power amplified that increase propensity to flirt • Power increasing disinhibited behaviour • EXAM: In case we looked at studies of disinhibited behaviour, how did increase power affect dishibited behaviour in women, men? o Eating cookies (females), flirting (men) Galinsky (2006) • Power manipulation – write essay on time you felt more power • Experiment 1 – power on perspective taking o More power, less likely to put yourself in other people’s perspective o Write E on forehead – looks like E to yourself (mirror), or others (low power condition) • Experiment 2 - Can you take someone else’s perspective • Experiment 3 – judge emotionality o High power, modulates how good you are to do it, less accurate on judging emotions Power and Laughter  [from Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer] • Apparent to social group that Rudolph has red nose, laughing at him • Enhance social ostracization (left out of group), soundtrack changes Power and Laughter – Stillman (2007) The Social Bonding Hypothesis Laughter is partly a result of evaluating some stimulus as funny, but that explanation is at best incomplete. Some people laugh when things are not funny, and the amount of laughter can vary widely even in response to a funny stimulus. This research was based on the assumption that one function of laughter is to strengthen social bonds and elicit liking. In particular, we sought to study the possible links between laughter and power. The central hypothesis was that low power makes people inclined to laugh, possibly because laughter may generally serve to increase the chances of gaining social support and allies. • Subtle but important social purposes, not just when things are funny o Laugh because it’s funny, or because of power? o Serve as social bonding with other people o Laughter – who’s in the group v. not (Rudolph) • Low power – more likely to laugh with other low power o Potential strength in bonding with lower power • On
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