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University of British Columbia
PSYC 312
Andrea Perrino

Ch 5 10/7/2012 9:55:00 AM Psych 312 Swallow the Rubber Tube – A College Prank?  In Titchener’s lab the graduate students were asked and urged to do and be a participants of weird and outrageous experiments in Cornell University. o Example: they were asked to swallow a tube for a whole day and drink hot water ( report their experiences) and later on drink a cold water ( report their experience) o Another experiment they would carry a notebook to washroom and record their feelings and sensations whenever they urinated and defecated. o They also had sex studies, where students reported on their sensations and attached measuring devices that recorded physiological responses. o These studies gave psychological laboratories a reputation of an immoral place. Edward Brandford Titchener (1867 – 1927):  Dramatically altered Wundt’s system to what he called “structuralism” o Prominent in United States and lasted some two decades  He focused on mental elements or contents and their mechanical linking through the process of association o He discarded Wundt’s doctrine of apperception  Psychologies fundamental task was to discover the nature of the elementary conscious experiences o To analyze consciousness into its component parts and thus determine its structure  Worked at Cornell University  Were his Oxford University Academic gown to every class ( very dramatic entrance)  Junior faculty required to attend all the lectures ( Titchener very controlling )  Autocratic and domineering Titchener’s Life:  Born in England  Poor family , so relied on intellectual abilities to get scholarship to college  Studied philosophy, the classics and worked as a research assistance in physiology  Won many academic prizes  Knew many languages o Latin, Greek, French, Italian  Became interested in Wundt’s psychology at Oxford  Finished his doctrine at Leipzig  Developed a close relationship with Wundt and his family  Once he finished doctrine he went to England to be a pioneer but everyone skeptical so he moved to United Stated and worked at Cornell University  Died of brain tumor at age 60  his brain is preserved in a jar  He published more that 60 studies  He had his students do most of the research  He accepted 50 doctrine students  Was very strict on what project they undertook o Exercised clear authority in selecting research problems for this students, assigning topics related to issues about which he was curious  He translated Wundt’s books in English.  His own books include : An Outline of Psychology, Primer of Psychology, experimental psychology: a manual Of laboratory Practice ( 4 volume) o Stimulated growth of psychology lab work in US and was translated in many languages ( Italian, German, Spanish, French and Russian)  He was an outstanding lecturer  He conducted a small musical ensemble at him home on Sunday evening o Used to in charge of teaching music at Cornell.  Coin collecting lead to learning Arabic and Chinese.  Added the term “ empathy” to English language  He later only lectured on certain days and got ready to retire.  Known as a legend  Strict but also very helpful to students  He did try to control their (the students) lives after they graduated from Cornell.  He wasn’t close to psychologists outside his own circle o He resigned from the APA because the association didn’t expel a person who Titchener accused of plagiarism . Titchener’s Experimentalists: No Women Allowed!  Psychologist from Cornell, Yale, Clark, Michigan and Princeton began a meeting where they compare each others research notes  Titchener chose the topic, the guests and generally dominated the meetings  But not women allowed o Because men used to smoke and “women are too pure to smoke”  Lucy May Boring: o Lived for 110 years o Earned her PHD and taught briefly o Chose marriage over her career in psychology  Christine Ladd- Franklin: o Wrote to Titchener and requested to talk about her research on color vision at the Experimentalist group. She was refused o She had completed the requirement for mathematics PHD at John Hopkins University but they refused to give it to her. They gave her the PHD 44 years later. o She thought Titchener’s exclusion of women was immoral and unscientific and old fashioned  Titchener continued to exclude women from the meeting BUT he encouraged and supported their advancement in psychology  He accepted women in his graduate studies while Harvard and Columbia university refused their admission  One third of the 56 doctorates awarded were to women.  He accepted more women for doctorate then any other male psychologist  He favored hiring female faculty  Margaret Floy Washburn: o First women to get a doctoral degree in psychology o Titchener’s first doctoral students o Wrote the animal mind ( comparative psychology) o First female psychologist elected to the National Academy of Sciences o Served as a president of APA  After Titchener’s death  Experimentalists  society of Experimental Psychologists o They admitted women The Content Of Conscious Experience :  Subject matter of psychology is conscious experience as that experience is dependent on the person who is actually experiencing it.  Other sciences  independent of experience o Example temperature  physics  temperature in a room may be 85 Fahrenheit , doesn’t matter if anyone in the room is experiencing it  Psychology  dependent of experience o Example temperature  when observes are in the room and they feel uncomfortably warm, the experience of warmth is dependent on the experiencing individuals  Textbook of psychology  Titchener talks about the differences between dependent and independent experience  In studying conscious experience, Titchener warned against Stimulus Error: o Confusing the mental process under study with the stimulus or object being observed o Example: observe sees an apple and says the object is an apple ( that’s stimulus error). He should report the elements of color, brightness, shape they are experiencing ( no describe in everyday language but rather in terms of elementary conscious content of experience) o Importance? When making a stimulus error, the subject pays attention to what they have learned about the object in the past rather than their own direct and immediate experience ( they are interpreting the object rather than observing it)  Deal with mediate rather than immediate experience ( HINT WUNDT) o Consciousness  Sum of an individual’s experiences as they exist at a given time ( mental processes occurring at a moment) o Mind  some of an individuals experiences accumulated over their life time. (total of mental processes)] o Structural psychology  pure science ( again just like Wundt) o Didn’t care about the application of psychology  Psychology is for finding out facts about the mind Introspection:  Titchener’s form of introspection or self observation  relied on observers that we trained to describe elements in their conscious state rather that reposting observed or experience stimulus by a familiar name o Unlearn  calling a red, round, shiny object an apple.  Adapted Kulpe’s label  Systematic experimental introspection o Detailed, qualitative, subjective reports of his subjects mental activities during the acts of introspecting o Opposed Wundt’s approach cause he thought they weren’t useful for uncov
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