Health Promotion - general philosophy of good health/wellness as a personal and collective achievement. Health
promotions is the process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health. (WHO)
- involves developing good health habits early and carrying them through adulthood.
- For physicians involves teaching people how to acheieve healthy lifestyle and helping at risk people
learn behaviours to offset those risks.
- psychologists --> development of interventions to help practice health behaviours and change bad ones.
- Lalonde report 1974 first suggested need for health promotion approach
In Canada there has been a decreases of acute infectious disorders but an increase in preventable disorders.
- smoking, poor diet and pphysical inactivity is the leading social.behavioural risk factors. Cancer deaths can be
reduced by 50% by decreasing smoking. etc.
Modification of health behaviours has 3 beneficial effects:
a. reduce deaths due to lifestyle related diseases
b. may delay the time of death by increasing individual longevity and life expectancy
c. expand the number of years during which a person lives without disease
d. decrease the amount of money that is spent on health care each year.
Health behaviours - undertaken by people to enhance or maintain health
Health habit - health related behaviour that is firmly established and performed automatically
- important health habits include: sleeping 7-8 hrs a night, no smoking, eating breakfast everyday, no more than 2
alcoholic drinks a day, regular exercise, not eating between meals, being no more than 10% overweight.
Primary prevention: instilling good health habits and changing poor ones. 2 strategies
What influences the practice of health behaviours???
- Socioeconomic factors,
- age = health habits good in childhood, decrease in adolescence, increase in adulthood - gender, values, personal control, social influence, personal goals, perceived symptoms, access to health
care services, place, cognitive
Barriers to modifying health behaviours
- once helth habits are engrained they are difficult to change
- instability of health behaviours - controlled by different factors based on individuals
Intervening with children or adolescents
- influence of early socialization and parents as role models
- teachable moments esp in early childhood (dentist)
- closing the window of vulnerability
- adolescent health behaviours influence adult health
Interventions with at risk people
- benefits = prevent/eliminate poor health habits with early identification, providing knowledge, easy to
identify other risk factors interacting with target factor.
- problems = perceptions, ethics (may bring out depressions), family dynamics issues
a. Attitude change and health behaviour
a.- education appeals and fear appeals.
a.- message framing - match the framing of the message with the health behaviours ie gain framed and loss
framed messages and congruent with own motives to increase self efficacy
b. The health belief model - (social cognition model)
b.-based on whether the person perceives a health threat and whether health practices will be effective in
reducing that threat. b.***social cognition models suggest that people hold beliefs about health behaviour motivate their decision
to change that behaviour. Based on expectancy value theory - people engage in behaviours in which they
c. Self Efficacy (social cog)
c.- strong relationship between strong self efficacy and initial health behaviour change.
d. The theory of planned behaviour (social cog)
d.- health behaviour is a direct result of a behavioural intention (attitudes, subjective norms and perceived
d.- predicts a broad array of health behaviours.
d.- implementation intentions - specific how/when/where of behaviour and plans to deal with barriers.
e. Transtheoretical model of behaviour change - spiral stage model.
e.- stages people go through in long term to bring behavioural change
e.-precontemplation: no intention of changing behaviour. unaware. pressured into help
e.- contemplation: no commitment to take action but aware of problem.
e.- preparation: intend to change behaviours but not s