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Chapter 4

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PSYC 314
Frances Chen

Chapter 4: Health Enhancing Behaviours How Does Exercise Enhance Health? Aerobic exercise: sustained exercise that stimulates and strengthens the heart and lungs, improving the body’s utilization of oxygen. Marked by high intensity, long duration, and high endurance. Examples: biking, jumping rope, running, and swimming Isokinetic exercises: Example being weightlifting may be satisfying but they have less of an overall effect on fitness because they draw on short term stores of glycogen rather than on the long term energy conversion system associated with aerobics Benefits of Exercise: Decrease risk of chronic disease, heart disease, some cancers Cuts risk of Type II diabetes in high risk adults significantly Only about half of Canadians are at least moderately active during their leisure time Exercise accelerates wound healing Physical inactivity is more common among women than men, older than younger, those with lower SES Exercise is considered the most important health habit for the elderly Benefits: increased efficiency of the cardio respiratory system, improved physical work capacity, the optimization of body weight, the improvement of muscle tone and strength, increase in soft tissue and joint flexibility, reduction of control of hypertension, improved cholesterol level, improved glucose tolerance, improved tolerance of stress, reduction in poor health habits How Much Exercise? For a typical adult the normal amount of exercise is 60 minutes of physical activity every day and30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity four days a week Effects on Psychological Health: There are benefits of exercise for both mental and physical health Exercise improves mood and feelings of well being immediately after a workout Social support during exercise increases the likelihood that people will maintain their exercise programs An improved sense of self efficacy can underlie the mood effects of exercise Exercise has been used as a treatment for depression and symptoms for menopause Exercise as Stress Management: Exercise is an effective way of managing stress Exercise improves self concept and self concept in turn improves the likelihood of continuing exercise An increase in endogenous opioids stimulated by exercise mat play a role in the modulation of immune activity during periods of psychological stress Exercise mat have beneficial effects on cognitive processes by focusing attention and concentration Determinants of Regular Exercise: Adults cite lack of time and other stressors in their lives as factors that undermine their good intentions Individual characteristics: people who come from families in which exercise is practised, who perceive themselves as athletic or a type of person who exercises, who enjoy their form of exercise, and who have positive attitudes towards physical activity, a strong self efficacy of exercising and social support from friends to exercise are more likely to get involved in exercise programs. Boys get more exercise than girls. Characteristics of the setting: convenient and easily accessible exercise settings lead to higher rates of adherence. Lack of resources for physical activity is a barrier for regular exercise for those with low SES Characteristics of Interventions: The theory of planned behaviour Cognitive behavioural strategies: contingency contracting, self reinforcement, self monitoring and goal setting—all of those promote adherence to exercise programs as a means to prevent relapse People who are contemplating starting exercise programs can be attacked using persuasion communication Those who are already engaging in exercise and face the problem of maintenance can benefit from the use of techniques that focus on the abandonment of an exercise program Knowing the motivations for a person to exercise provides the underpinnings for developing an individualized exercise program that fits the person well Exercised level in the Canadian population has been rising What are preventable Injuries? Unintentional injuries represent one of the major causes of preventable deaths in Canada Traffic accidents are one of the largest causes of death among children adolescents and young adults Not using a helmet can cause head injury which hospitalizes more than 4500 per year making helmet use a major issue Unintentional injuries in the house such as poisoning and falls are the most common cause of death among kids under the age of 5 Providing education and resources about how to keep the home safe is key to preventing accidents in the home Unintentional injuries in the home and workplace have declined which could be caused by better safety precautions The single greatest cause of death from unintentional injury is motorcycle and automobile accidents Safety measures such as reducing highway speeds, requiring seat belts, and placing young kids in safety restraint seats have reduced the number of severe injuries and fatalities Making themselves visible through reflective clothing and the use of helmets among bicycles and motorcycles has reduced the severity of accidents—however getting people to follow these safety measures is difficult Social engineering, health education and psychological interventions have been used to promote the use of seat belts What are Cancer-Related Health Behaviours? Approximately one out of four Canadians will die from cancer Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide—the death rate from breast cancer has dropped 25% since screening techniques were created. In Canada one out of every nine women will get breast cancer Women aged 40-49 are recommended to receive a clinical breast exam performed by a trained health professional at least once every two years and women from 50-69 are suggested to have a mammogram every two years in addition to the clinical breast exam Clinical Breast Exam (CBE): involves a thorough physical examination of the breast. Educating women about the importance of having a regular CBE can be difficult and often depends on belief about vulnerability, perceived barriers, and self efficacy for getting screenings Mammograms: compliance with the mammography recommendations in low with only about 50% of women obtaining them. The use of mammograms declines with age even though the risk of breast cancer increases with age Women in precontemplation, relapse, contemplation, and action stage were significantly less likely to report a recent mammogram during follow-up compared to those in the maintenance stage Changing attitudes towards mammography may increase the likelihood of obtaining a mammogram; the health belief model: perceiving benefits of mammograms and encountering few barriers to obtaining one has been associated with a greater likelihood of obtaining one The theory of planned behaviour: women who have a positive attitude regarding mammography and who perceive social norms as favouring their obtaining a mammogram are more likely to participate in a mammography program Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men with one in eight men likely to develop prostate cancer during their lifetime Risk for prostate cancer increase with age and men over 50 are encouraged to discuss screening options with their family doctor The digital rectal exam (DRE) is the most common screening method for prostate cancer and the prostate specific antigen test (PSE) is another test not as commonly used which involves a blood test In western countries colorectal cancer is the second highest cause of cancerous deaths and it is increasing at higher rates among Canada’s aboriginal population than the general public Colorectal screening is distinctive because it does not detect malignancies and is taken as a blood test and recommended every two years for men and women over 50 with risk for cancer Rates of skin cancer have been rising—skin cancers are among the most preventable cancers. Women are more likely than men to practice sun protective behaviours. Problems with getting people to engage in safe sun practices stem from the fact that tans are perceived to be attractive Why is Maintaining a Healthy Diet Important? Diet is an important and controllable risk factor for many of the leading causes of death and contributes substantially to risk factors for disease as well Diet change is often critical for people at risk for or already diagnosed with chronic diseases such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer Supermarkets in high SES neighbourhoods carry more health oriented food products than do supermarkets in low SES areas Diet is a determinant of a person’s lipid profile and elevated total serum cholesterol and low density lipid proteins are risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease (CDH) and hypertension. Changing from trans fat and saturated fats to polyunsaturated fats and monounsaturated fats is one of the most recommended courses of action Dietary habits are linked to cancers such as colon, stomach, pancreas and breast A diet high in fibre may protect against obesity and cardiovascular disease by lowering insulin levels A diet high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, peas, and beans, poultry, and fish, low in refined grains, potatoes, and red and processed meat has been shown to lower the risk of coronary heart disease in women Modifications in diet can lower blood cholesterol level and these modifications may reduce the risk for atherosclerosis New drugs called statins reduce cholesterol in conjunction with dietary modifications. The effects of statins are so rapid that low density lipoprotein cholesterol is lower within the first month after beginning use A debate about diet includes lowering caloric intake. Caloric restriction has increased life span in several organisms; however it is not known if it will increase the life span in humans Many interventions have been implemented on the community level and specifically within school systems. Resistance to Modifying Diet: Stress has a direct effect on eating, especially in adolescence Greater stress is tied to consuming more fatty foods and less fruit and vegetables and to the lesser likelihood of eating breakfast with more snacking between meals Low cholester
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