*Stress moderators: modify how stress is experienced and the effects it has. Ex) Individual
differences of socio-economic status, social support resources etc.
: thoughts and behaviors used to manage the internal and external demands of situations that
are appraised as stressful. Series of transactions between people and environment.
1. relationship between coping and a stressful event is a dynamic process.
Genes& Environmental factors.
*Negative affectivity: a pervasive negative mood marked by anxiety, depression and hostility.
People with high negative affectivity--> more suicide, depression.
*Neuroticism: It is an enduring tendency to experience negative emotional states--> Related
to poor health.(Disease prone personality)
*Negative Affectivity: elevated cortisol secretion->increased adrenocortical activity--> bio-
psychosocial pathway linking negative affectivity to adverse health outcomes.
Negative affectivity sometimes create a false impression of sickness.
*Pessimism: a relatively stable dispositional characteristic to expect negative outcomes in the
future. Pessimistic explanatory style: also prone to poor health outcomes. have reduced
Dispositional pessimism also compromise coping efforts and the use of coping resources.
Socio-economic factors may contribute to pessimistic appraisals of resources, and
consequently increase risks for poor health. Low SES-->More pessimism.
*Perfectionism; tendency to experience frequent cognitions about the attainment of ideal
standards, multidimensional construct--> migraines, stress, asthma.
However, two types of perfectionism. Malapdaptive perfectionism is related to bad health but
self-oriented perfectionism is not. Maybe maladaptive is the one related to stress.
*optimism is good for health. Dispositional optimism is a general expectancy that good things
will happen in the future. They are more likely to seek out for social support. positive mood-->
Optimism seeks out for more coping, support. More problem focused coping and less denial.
**Pessimists and optimists differ in their physiological functioning. pessimistic has higher blood
pressure. Sometimes, optimists go through short term stress due to persisting in pursuing goal
*Procrastination can be bad for your health! stress and poor health like depression, negative
evaluation. They exhibit poor wellness behaviors, delay going to doctors. Health compromising
behaviors like drinking.
:belief that one can determine ones own behavior, influence ones environment and bring about
*Self efficacy: one has the ability to enact the necessary actions to obtain a specific outcome in a specific situation. --> Help people cope with stressful events. Beliefs in personal control led to
better immune responses. When people feel like they have control over their life, stress is
*High self esteem may moderate the stress-illness relationship. But may apply to low level of
High ego strengthened people lived longer.
*Cheerful people die faster because they are careless about their health. high
conscientiousness were more likely to live longer.
-->Health-prone personality: self control, self esteem, optimism and resilience.
:general propensity to deal with stressful events in a particular way.
*Approach vs avoidance:
Approach= confrontative, vigilant, successful when there are actions to be taken, and if one can
focus on the information present in the situation rather than emotions.
Neither is better than another.
Approach is better for long term threats.
Although avoidance seem good for short term threat, studies may have underestimated how
unsuccessful avoidant coping is.
*Problem focused coping: attempts to do something constructive about the stressful conditions
while emotion focused regulate emotions of individuals.
*Problem solving emerge during childhood, and emotion is later.
*Emotion might work better for women.
Maybe.... work might be better with problem focused coping, while health is better with
emotion focused coping. As for health, it is not amendable to active coping efforts. People
would simply have to accept it.
*Emotion focused coping is successful because it has soothing effect on stress regulatory
systems. Also, it promotes affirmation of important aspects of the self and identity.
-COPE: a measurement of specific coping strategy
*People who are able to shift their coping strategies to meet the demands of a situation cope
better with stress.
External sources: money, time, education, job, children,...
*Higher Socio economic status= lower risks. Even animals shows this symptom of higher status
relates to good health.
*A brief Cope is a measure of coping that relies on two items to tap each of a broad array of
commonly used coping styles for managing stressful events. People scale from 0-3.
The presence of other life stressors acts as resource depleter.
Positive life events help people to cope more effectively with life stressors. Both immediate
mood and long term well-being.
-Vacation helps middle aged men at risk for heart disease. Other age groups not yet proven. Resilience also comes from individual differences in how people cope with stressful events.
Feeling positive emotions amidst sad situation.
Coping efforts center on five main tasks
1. To reduce harmful environmental conditions and enhance the prospects of recovery
2. To tolerate or adjust to negative events or realities
3. To maintain a positive self-image
4. To maintain emotional equilibrium
5. To continue satisfying relationship with others.
Coping efforts are successful when
1. it reduces arousal and indicators like heart rate, pulse and skin conductivity. +Blood or urine
levels of catecholamines and corticosteroids are reduced.
2. people quickly return to pre-stress activities.
3. effectiveness in reducing psychological distress.
4. shortens the stressful events duration.
Social support: information from others that one is loved and cared for, part of communication
from all valued subjects.
People with high social support experience less stress.
-->Tangible assistance(material support), informational support(understand and d