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Chapter 1

PSYC 314 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Behaviorism, Oncogene

Course Code
PSYC 314
Christiane Hoppmann

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Chapter 1: An overview of psychology and health
What is health? is the absence of..
1. Objective signs: that body is not functioning properly=measured high blood pressure
2. Subjective symptoms of disease or injury= pain, nausea
An Illness/Wellness continuum:
-health and sickness overlap: we can be not sick, but less healthy if we smoke cigs
-look at the graph in book
Illness today and in the past:
In the past, ppl die from 2 types of illness
1. Dietary Diseases: from malnutrition
-eg Beriberi: lack of vitamin B
2. Infectious Diseases: acute illness from harmful matter/micro-organism
-eg. bacteria, viruses
In the world today: infectious disease=main cause of death
-specifically in lower income/developing countries
History of diseases in Canada:
colonial days to 18th/19th Centuries:
-early settlers infected with infectious diseases
-eg. small pox, cholera, diphtheria, measles, influenza
=settlers bought disease with them, impacting aboriginals: rapid death rate: but why?
-natives were never exposed to new micro-organism= lack natural immunity
-their immune function were limited by low degree of genetic variation
19th century: infectious disease: still greatest threat in health=
-small pox continued,
-new disease: Tuberculosis (TB)
End of 19th Century:
-death from infectious disease decreased= (e.g TB decline for 60%)
-Vaccines were developed in response of 1885 small pox
-but it decreased even b4 vaccines were developed:
-preventive measures (hygiene, nutrition, public innovation (building water `
-changing health attitudes and behaviour
20th Century:
-after WWI, influenza viruses decrease dramatically

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-increasing death from chronic illness (cancer, heart disease)=n
-life expectancy increased: from 1921: M59 F61, Today: M80 F84
-life expectancy however varies from region and ethnicity
-Main problem: Chronic Disease= now more than half of all deaths
Viewpoints from History: Physiology, Disease processes, and the Mind:
Early Cultures:
-believed physical & mental illness were caused by evil spirits:
-Trephination: holes in skull: supersititous procedure to allow demons to leave the head
Ancient Greece and Rome: 500 and 300BCE
-Humoral Theory: four humours: Hippocrates
-when the mixture of 4 humours is balanced, it indicate good health
Plato: greek philosopher=
-mind and body are separate entities
-Mind/Body problem= although we can separate mind & body, question is whether they function
Galen: dissected animals= illness can be localized, with specific parts of the body
The Middle Ages:
-influence of church: prohibits dissection: belief in demons again:
-church is in control=priest as physicians=torture body to get evil spirit out
The renaissance and After:
Rene Descartes=
1. body as a machine: how action & sensation occur: (how we experience pain)
2. mind and body are seperate: although seperate, could communicate through pineal gland
3. animals have no soul, and soul in body leaves the body at death
eighteenth/nineteenth century:
-dismissal of homoral theory: believe that mind and body are seperate=biomedical model
biomedical model: all disease can be explained by disturbances in physiological processes
Sir William Osler: late nineteenth-century view of heart disease:
-role of stress and related aspects of every life impacts heart

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Seeing a need: Psychology’s Role in Health
-how biomedical model needs improvement
Problems in the Health Care system:
-escalated cost in health care around the world
-canadas health care system: principle of equal access=encourage ppl to go to health
care=rise in health care cost
-cancer prevention techniques are better than actual cancer treatment
“The person” in health and illness:
-psychological & social factors play a role in illness: lifestyle choices
Lifestyle and Illness:
-change in ppls lifestyle behaviour:
risk factors: both biological and behavioural
-associate with health problem, not necessarily cause the problem
Behaivoural risk factors with 5 leading causes of death in Canada:
1. Cancer=smoking, high alcohol consumption, obesity
2. Heart Disease=smoking, high blood pressure, high dietary cholesterol, obesity, little exercise
3. Stroke=smoking, high blood pressure, high dietary cholesterol, little exercise
4. Chronic Obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)=Smoking
5. Accidents=alcohol/drug use, not using seat belts
-High medical cost is because of these behaviours
research: ppls practising of healthful behaviour can reduce risk of illness and early death
Personality and Illness:
-personality: ones cognitive, affective, behavioural tendency= theres a link
-Low level of conscientiousness (thorough, organized) in childhood=higher risk of dying such as
cardiovascular disease
-High level of positive emotions= live longer
-high level of anxiety, depression, hostility, pessimism= variety of illness, mainly heart disease
-high anxiety: stress
Not a 1 way street, illness can affect ones emotion:
-this explains why we consider psychological and social factors in health and disease
How the Role of Psychology Emerged:
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