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Chapter 6

PSYC 314 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Acculturation, Hypervigilance

Course Code
PSYC 314
Christiane Hoppmann

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Chapter 6: Health-Related Behaviour and Health Promotion:
Developed Nation: cardiovascular disease and cancer are the leading killers
Health Behaviour:
-any activity ppl perform to maintain/improve health
-ppls health status affect health behaviour and their motivation
Well Behaviour: any activity ppl maintain or improve good health
-also has motivational factors due to perception of threat of disease
Symptom-based behaviour:
-any activity ppl who are ill undertake to determiner he problem and find a remedy
-complaining, seeking for help, unconcerned
Sick-role behaviour:
-any activity ppl undertake to threat or adjust to a health problem after deciding they r ill
-how ppl behave when they are sick=what they have learned
Practising Health Behaviour:
-theres a difference=gender, socio-cultural, age differences
-health behaviours are not linked together= ppl can have concern of health in one area, and little
concern in another
-various factors at any given time may differently affect different behaviour:
-ppl change as a result of experience:
-ppls life circumstances change=peer pressure, habits change
Interdisciplinary perspectives on preventing illness:
=Efforts to prevent illness:
-Behavioural influence: eg. promote tooth brushing by providing info and demonstrating
-Environmental Measures: public health officials
-preventive medical efforts: e.g. dental prof can remove cavities
-behaviour influence has great impact in health promotion
3 levels of Prevention:
Primary: actions to avoid disease
Secondary: early signs of problemactions are taken to identify and treat an illness=stopping the
-x-rays, examinations tests
Tertiary: u have the disease beyond early stages= try to prevent death

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Problems in Promoting Wellness:
Factors within the individual:
-some ppl view healthful behaviours as less appealing, favouring pleasure
Four other factors:
1. adopting wellness lifestyle require one to change a long-standing behaviour that have
become habituated: smoking cigs
2. ppl need to have cognitive resources: knowledge and skills to change
3. ppl need sufficient self-efficacy for motivation
4. being sick/on drugs affect mood and energy level=affects cognitive resources and
Interpersonal Factors:
-social factors influence ppls health behaviours
Factors in the Community:
-ppl more likely to adopt healthful behaviours if community organixation are promoted
General Factors in Health-Related Behaviour
-heredity has an impact in health related behaviours:
Learning: particularly in operant conditioning
1. Reinforcement: doing something pleasurable reinforced and increased that behaviour
2. Extinction: if reinforcing stimuli stopped, the response gradually weakens
-only if theres no alternative stimuli reinforcers
3. Punishment: doing something that brings unwanted consequence: suppresses the behaviour
-ppl injured themselves while running: some would be less likley to resume jogging
Modelling: ppl learn by observing other ppl’s behaviours
if behaviour becomes established=habitual
Social, Personality, and emotional factors:
conscientiousness: affects the stress when facing illness= coping skills can reduce cancer
Cognitive factor:
-ppl need correct knowledge about the health issues and the ability to solve problems
-ppl make judgements that have impact on their health: can lead to misconception etc
unrealistic optimism: people think they are less likely to develop diseases than others
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