PSYC 314 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Headache, Barbiturate, Codeine

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3 Feb 2016
Chapter 7: Substance Use and Abuse
Substance Abuse:
Addiction and dependence:
-Addiction: condition, produced by repeated consumption of psychoactive substance, where one
becomes physically and psychologically dependent on the substance
Physical dependence: when body is adjusted to a substance and incorporate into normal
function of the bodys tissues. the 2 characteristics are:
-Tolerance: body increasingly adapts to substance; require larger doses
-Withdrawal: unpleasant physical and psychological symptom when they dont do drugs.
symptoms can be craving, anxiety, irritability, nausea, headaches
Psychological dependence: state where one feel compelled to use substance for the effects,
whiteout being physically dependent
-dependence develops through repeated use
being without a substance: craving=motiavtional state involve with strong desire for it
-users become psychologically dependent first, then physically dependent
substance use disorder: 2 or more yrs
-showing tolerance for substance
-experiencing strong cravings for the substance
-failure to fulfill obligation: not studying
-putting oneself at risk for physical injury (driving intoxicated)
-having substance-related legal difficulties
Processes leading to dependence:
-positive reinforcement: pleasure after smoking a cig (added)
-negative reinforcement: reducing a bad circumstance: weed reduces pain
Avoiding Withdrawal:
-ppl keep on using to prevent withdrawal
-delirium tremens: withdrawal syndrome for alcohol
Substance-Related Cues:
-cues: signal: ppl use substance to associate with internal/environmental stimuli
-e.g. sight/smell of cigs, bottle and taste of beer
-done through classical conditioning: elicit a response through an unconditioned stimulus
-e.g. the buzz
response: attention and craving for the buzz
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-these cues grabs attention, arouse anticipation of reward, increases consumption
-learning cues enables body to anticipate and compensate substance effect
-e.g. an initial drink gets body to prepare for more
-incentive-sensitization theory: neurotransmitter dopamine enhances noticeable stimuli
associated with substance use so they become increasingly powerful in directing behaviour
-ppl develop expectancy: ideas of outcome of behaviour
-from experiences, and observing others (expect alcohol to be fun)
-children develop expectancy about positive aspect of alcohol through learning processes
(parents, tv, ads)
-impulsive, high risk-takers, sensation-seeking, low self-regulation:
self-regulation (ability to control own thoughts, emotions)
-Heredity influence addiction: identical twins more likely to both smoke than fraternal twins
-specific genes: also identified for substances
-gene that affect smoking are not the same as drinking
-substance use in adolescent: social factors
-in adulthood: more genetic factors
-high level of parental involvement (monitoring): can counteract child’s genetic abuse
-epigenetic processes: environmental factors can alter the operation of genes that are involved
in substance use
Smoking Tobacco:
mid-60s: highest rate in canada: ppl dont have knowledge (61% men, 38%women)
-today: 20% man, 15% women
-daily smokers: 14 cigs a day
-gender gaps: lower over time
-80% of smokers live in developing countries:
-canada: more aboriginal smokes: 59% on-reserved first nations, 58% of inuit ppl smoke. 18% is
the general population
teens: general population is very low, but not aboriginal: vary by social class
Why ppl smoke:
-psychosocial factors: primary forces=modelling, peer pressure
-personal characteristics: low self-esteem, rebellious, thrill-seeker,
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Becoming a regular smoker:
-a few years, proceeds faster if first experience is pleasant
-why some ppl continue to smoke and some dont: depends on psychosocial influences
-parents who smoke, siblings or friends
-rebellious, thrill-seekers, low in school motivation
-receptive to tobacco ads
-felt peer pressure to smoke
-has positive attitude to smoking
-doesnt believe smoking harms health
-believe they can quit if they want
-reinforcement: taste/effects
-stress: reduce stress: negative reinforcement
Biological routes:
1. mother smoking during pregnancy: increase risk of child smoking
2. heredity: genetic affect this
3. Insula (area of brain): control desire to smoke=damage in insula: less desire to smoke
Stages of Change model of smoking:
-pre contemplation (not considering), contemplation (considering), and preparation (intending)
-adds with nonsusceptibility, susceptibility:
-preparation+susceptibility=highest chance of becoming a smoker
The Role of Nicotine:
-Carbon monoxide: gas that absorb through bloodstream: affects ones physiological functioning
-Tar: minute particles, suspended in smoking
Nicotine: addictive chemical producing physiological effects
-once smoked, alveoli in lungs absorbs nicotine, transmit it to blood, caries the nicotine to
brain:release chemicals that activate central and sympathetic nervous system: arouse the body
-nicotine decrease through metabolism in two hours:
Nicotine regulation model: ppl smoke to maintain certain levels of nicotine to avoid withdrawal
study: ppl who smoke low nicotine cigs needed to smoke more
-counter: ppl who quit and started smoking again: not from nicotine
-ppl smoke the same amount: doesn't increase tolerance
Smoking and Health:
-clogged arteries cause heart attacks=if quit about 15 yrs: the odds is simlar to ppl who never
-tar, and other chemicals: carcinogens
-lung, mouth, esophagus, porstate
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