PSYC 314 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Low-Density Lipoprotein, Margarine, Atherosclerosis

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3 Feb 2016
Chapter 8: Nutrition, Weight control and diet, Exercise, and
Components of Food:
1. Carbohydrates: simple/complex sugars that are major source of energy
-glucose (animal product), fructose (fruits & honey), lactose (milk products), starch(plant)
-body change carbs into glucose (blood sugar)
2. Lipids/fats: also provide energy for body
-contains saturated and polyunsaturated fats
3. Proteins: important for bodys synthesis of new cell material
-composed of amino acid: essential for body development and functioning
4. Vitamins: organic chemicals that regulate metabolism and function of body
-converts nutrients to energy, producing hormones, braking down waste product
-some vitamins are fat-soluble (A,D,E,K): dissolve in fats, stored
-water-soluble (B,C): store very little, excess quantity goes to waste
5. Minerals: inorganic substances important in body development
-calcium, phosphorus: bones and teeth
-potassium, sodium: nerve transmission
-iron: helps transport oxygen to body
- iodine, and zinc
food contains fibre: need for digestion
antioxidants: vitamins A,C,E=reduce damage to cells from a process in metabolism oxidation
=reduce risk of disease, cancer, cardiovascular, and eye
excess of vitamins can damage liver, kidneys
spina bifida: birth defect: to prevent, pregnant women need folic acid, vitamin b
high sugary food: insulin resilience->high level of blood glucose->type2 diabetes
-sugar cause inflammation in body->oxidative stress->cardiovascular disease
WHO: need sugar less than 5% of total calories consumed=half amt of sugar in coke
What ppl eat:
-gender: women eat healthier diet globally, less fat, more fruit and fibre
-dietary trends:
-healthy changes: ppl consume less red meat and shoe milk, veggies increased
-Unhealthy changes: intake of sugars, cheese, creams, fats, oil increased
Biopsychosocial factors why ppl eat what they eat:
-inborn processes: babies like sweet taste, hate bitter taste: brain chemicals bias fatty food
-skills: ability to regulate diet, planning and monitoring food
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-environmental or experience with food:
-newborns can learn to like food, avoid food
-availability of food: exposed to a certain type of food
-more fast food in area, more ppl eat that
-ppl observe others eating (tv commercials)
-larger the portion, more ppl eat (also concern in Canada)
Nutrition and Health:
Diet and Atherosclerosis:
-Atherosclerosis: disease of artery: high level of cholesterol (fatty substance)
-this can also begin in childhood
cholesterol forms plaques in our blood vessel:
lipoproteins: consist of fat and proteins
-l ow-density lipoprotein (LDL): increased plaque deposit=bad cholesterol
-forms plaques stuck in the vessels
-high-density lipoprotein (HDL): decreased likelihood of plaque buildup=good cholesterol
-carry LDL away and remove it from liver
Dietary fats:
Triglycerides: in most fats ppl consume: increase risk of heart disease
omega-3 fatty acid: from fish: reduces triglycerides and raise HDL
trans-fatty acid: oils, margarine, increases LDL and lower HDL
-normal level of cholesterol increase with age
-heredity matters, also lifestyle
-cigarettes: increase LDL and decrease HDL levels
-daily intake cholesterol: should not exceed 300mg
-Statin drugs: reduce LDL and raise HDL levels
-Lowering LDL can reduce cardiovascular illness
-processed food: contains saturated fats instead of polyunsaturated
-oils derived from certain plants: Monosaturated fats= no cholesterol, lower LDL, but not HDL
Diet and Hypertension:
-hypertensive: blood pressure exceeding 140 systolic/90 diastolic
-need to loose weight, restricting certain foods, low sodium diets
-Sodium (salt): increases blood pressure when stressed
-Caffeine: increase ppls reactivity to stress: raise blood pressure
-but no research has found it linked to heart disease and hypertension
Diet and Cancer:
-high saturated fats, low fibre and fish=development of cancer=colon(intestine) & prostate gland
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-fruits and veggies: rich in beta-carotene= good for protecting cancer
Intervention to improve health:
-can use behavioural and educational methods
dietary intervention:
-reducing cholesterol levels:
=Multiple Risk Factor Intervention (MRFI): modify mens diet/cholesterol level
-increasing fruit & veggie consumption:
1. only provide information
2.provide info+2 cognitive procedures=
-motivational interviewing
-making individuals carry out their intentions
-results=first group relapse, second group succeeded
Desirable and Undesirable weights:
Criteria of how we judge weights:
1. Attractiveness= can lower self-esteem, continues to adulthood
2. Healthfulness
Body Mass Index (BMI)
-go read lecture slides
Socio-cultural, Gender, age differences in weight control:
-Moderate high obesity in Canada
-rates of obesity=highest between 55-64 yrs, but decline after age 65
-ppl consuming more calories, engaging in less physical activity
-Newfoundland and Labrador=Highest overweight rate for Canadian men
-socio-cultural differences: aboriginals have highest obesity rate
Becoming Overweight:
-consuming more calories than they burn up through metabolism
adipose tissue: body stores excess calories as fat here
Biological Factors in Weight Control:
-metabolism differers in individual=heredity
-but epigenetic can influence as well
-genes: FTO: affects adipose tissue
-but being physically active can overcome genetic predisposition
set-point theory: individual has a setweight that it strives to maintain
-when persons weight is not in set-point, body increase/decrease metabolism=it corrects itself
and soon return to original weight
-maintaining through hypothalamus=monitors the blood levels of 3 hormones
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