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Chapter 16

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PSYC 320
Sunaina Assanand

Chapter 16: Have Women Become More like Men:  Husbands have become more involved in household work and child care as women join the work force  Men feel pressure to become more emotionally open, men also feeling the pressure to become more like women  During the past 50 years, women and men are more like in the sexual behaviour  Most differences in sexual behaviour disappear when they think they are monitored by a polygraph  Women’s lower rate of masturbation may relate to difficulties in having orgasm during sex  Men and women have different attitudes about commitment to sexual relationships, can result in jealous and conflict  Increased acceptance of sexuality other than intercourse led women to be less sexually dependent of men, may lead to discontent for men  Women have higher expectations of emotional commitment than men do  Women now receive more college degrees than men  Differences exist in areas of training, and advanced and professional degrees but gender gap is closing in careers such a s law, business and medicine  Competing for good jobs is not a welcome change for men  The degree to which women are satisfied with their employment varies with the degree of support they receive from colleagues and supervisors.  Women whose husbands provide little support are less satisfied than those with supportive families, but gender convergence is happening too  Employed women need to receive support from as well as provide support, husbands now have to work and provide emotional support as well as help with the household  Women have become more like men but men have not adopted women’s behaviour to the same extent  Men’s traditional masculine style of assertive behaviour is the model of behaviour that is set for many situations. Women adopt this style which is different from the typical communal style.  Women are rewarded for adopting the agentic behavior style but men are not for the expressive or communal behaviours.  Women have more freedom to become androgynous than men do, combining the positive aspects of masculinity and femininity  Research indicates women prefer more opportunities and option rather than return to traditional gender roles  Women and men both report that their lives had improved because of the women’s movement  Men can feel resentful because they see more disadvantages to the gender roles for men than women do for changes to women. Women no longer rely on men and men have to compete with them for jobs.  Greater gender flexibility has brought uncertainty to the gender roles as well as more options  Men have more to lose with the gender role changes than women do.  Society does not encourage men to act more feminine  Women do not want to lose elements of their gender role such as childcare, they want to add the privileges and choices that men have enjoyed-want it all  Men want to return to traditionalism more than women Why Can’t A Man Be More Like A Woman?  Women’s talk based style of intimacy has become the standard  Traditional men see not advantages for themselves in women’s greater freedom  They have stereotypical attitudes toward their own gender role, resent the competition for grades and jobs and prefer traditional femininity  These men are more likely to be older, and are becoming a minority  Younger men more likely to endorse equality and greater involvement of men in the family life. They are more likely to have a mother or partner who works and is pushed into egalitarian relationships, they are unlikely to label themselves as feminists but their values are compatible with feminist goals  Social and personal reasons why men can’t be more like women  Communal qualities associated with women are highly regarded as a social category but not when women show these in positions traditionally held by ,en  Positive attitudes about women do not ensure social acceptance of their style in roles other than traditional ones  Bad because these behaviours foster better work outcomes and corporations with mixed gender managers are more successful than only male managers  The rewards for men being more expressive aren’t as great as women being more instrumental which means change will be very slow if it does happen Multiple Roles Have Become the Rule:  Now that women are having careers despite being married and having kids means that a work/life balance for both men and women is a major challenge for model couples in high income countries  Women are still expected to occupy the role of wife and mother and perform household chores  Men are pressured to do more in the household but they have few models for the acceptability of performing them and little practice in doing them  Men’s work: mowing the lawn, shoveling snow, taking out the trash  Women’s work: time consuming chores, grocery shopping, food preparation, cleanup, majority of childcare  Corporate male dominated careers are modeled after men and have not changed to accommodate women’s duties.  Women used to be just the support system for men’s careers, such as the “corporate wife” for social functions and to boost the husband’s career. Women now need that “wife” person but their husbands but they wouldn’t function as well  Many men have taken the role of at-home support and Mr. Mom but many times it is because of the husband’s loss of job. This can create tensions within the family because of the reversal of breadwinner. Both husband and wife can receive disapproval for spending too much time in tasks that are gender inappropriate  Couples that maintained
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