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Chapter 12

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PSYC 320
Sunaina Assanand

Chapter 12- Careers and Work  Glass ceiling: invisible barrier that prevents women and ethnic minorities from advancing in organizations o Women tend to be hired in traditional positions for women o Females get lower wages  Women and ethnic minorities also advance more slowly in academic and scientific careers  Career: role ppl play throughout their lives  Most women and men continue to choose gender-traditional occupations o Wive’s careers secondary to their husbands- result in interruptions of careers for women o Women more likely to hold part-time employment- disadvantage in career advancement o Men’s careers more likely to follow smooth line of career choices during schooling, uninterrupted employment, and continuing career advancement throughout adulthood o Homemaking a legitimate career for women, but excludes them from paid workforce o Women may make career choices based on family as well as individual preferences and needs; may leave their careers to fulfill family obligations and not maintain a linear progression of career development- ecological model  Children between ages of 6 and 12 perceive status diffs. in feminine and masculine careers o Career aspirations for girls decreased as girls adopted more traditional gender roles  Female-dominated vs. male-dominated professions  Young women’s career aspirations include both career and family o Most women, regardless of career plans, also anticipate marriage and children as part of life goals  Force fields that pull women toward domesticity and away from careers o Similar forces affect men, drawing them toward careers and away from family o High-prestige careers demand time and commitment from both men and women  Women w/ more traditional gender role beliefs are more strongly influenced by presentation of feminine gender stereotypes and more likely to choose occupations more traditional for women  Identification of women w/ caring may present major barrier to women’s success in nontraditional careers  Students from ethnic minorities perceived more limitations on their opportunities and saw more barriers to their career progress than students from majority ethnic group  Women remain concentrated in a narrow range of clerical, service, or professional positions  Women are moving into male-dominated occupations at a higher rate than men are moving into female-dominated jobs  Discrimination in hiring represents a second point at which women and men may be disadvantaged in careers  For every occupational category, women earned less than men  Salary advancements for women and men were comparable, and women received promotions at least as rapidly as men o However, hiring allows possibility of discrimination 1) through recruitment, 2) through who receives offers, and 3) through assignment of women and men to different jobs or w/ different salaries  Gender composition of applicant pool made it more difficult for a person to be hired when most of the possible hires were of the other gender  People adjust their criteria for merit in a biased way that gives advantages to the group they favor  Employment equity directives can increase women’s chance of being hired, but only if their qualifications are higher than other applicants o When qualifications are similar, underqualified men’s chances increase o Gender stereotypes work against women in being hired into nontraditional jobs  Women sorted into lower-level jobs and received lower salaries than men hired by same large companies  Women expected lower initial salaries than men did o Women also expected to earn less at the peak of their earnings o Men were more effective in negotiation for money o Women fared more poorly when they negotiated w/ men o Men had better outcomes when they negotiated w/ women than w/ other men o Men got more money in all pairings o These contribute to women’s lower salaries  Men and women subject to positive and negative discrimination on basis of gender stereotypes  Men have advantage in “masculine jobs” and women have advantage in “feminine jobs”  White applicants for jobs received higher ratings than African-Americans or Hispanic American candidates w/ the same qualifications  Heterosexual men received the highest and heterosexual women the lowest ratings and salaries  Women have no advantages in attaining higher positions in traditionally female-dominated fields- men have advantages for those jobs, too  Glass escalator: image that some invisible force produces an easy ascent to higher positions, in contrast w/ glass ceiling, which blocks progress toward highest levels of career achievement o may come as a result of perception that men should not be in jobs that women usually perform o thus men receive promotions to administrative or supervisory positions within that occupation  the sticky floor is also a factor in women’s lower wages and problems in career advancement o contrasts w/ glass ceiling as a means to describe low-status occupations w/ little opportunity for advancement (occupations in which employees get stuck at the lowest levels o may occupations dominated by women fit this description (can also be professional careers)  greater #s of ethnic minority women tend to be concentrated in low-level jobs w/ a sticky floor o African-American are more likely to work in health service jobs o Hispanic American women are more likely to be employed in manufacturing o All of these jobs have lower wages than jobs typically occupied by White women or by men  Token: a person that stands out, becoming more visible than other employees, and feels pressure to succeed and to reflect well on the ability of everyone in his or her minority group o As tokens try to fit into the existing corporate and social structure, the dominant group may work toward keeping them on the periphery in subtle rather than overt ways, such as excluding the token from social interactions o Tokens do not become one on the “good ol’ boys” or part of the network that offers support and allows connections that may be important to career advancement o Women from ethnic minorities are at a special disadvantage b/c they are tokens in 2 ways o Tokens are also handicapped in forming mentoring relationships (usually between younger and less experienced workers that offer valuable support in the form of friendship, advice, or even direct intervention in the organization)  Mentor-protegé relationships tend to form within gender and ethnic lines  Neither women or ethnic minorities are common in upper echelons of organizations, contributing to their handicap in finding mentors  Establishing a mentor relationship w/ a White man is more advantageous  Perception continues that men are more suited to be managers b/c they “take charge”  For young, educated women and men, the gender gap in wages is not large  For workforce in general, the wage gap begins w/ teenaged workers and persists  People evaluate work done by women as being worth less than work done by men- even when the work was exactly the same  Association of women with household work and child care has created a “force field” that attracts them to those domains, often decreasing the amount of time they spend on their careers o Pull toward domesticity prevents women from fulfilling the “ideal worker role”  Assumption that women will perform most household chores and become primary caregivers for children o Even when “family friendly” policies were in place, both corporate and academic employment failed to support women’s careers o Women who choose to concentrate on their careers were perceived as neglecting their families, yet
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