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Chapter 8

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PSYC 320
Sunaina Assanand

Chapter 8 Notes- Emotion Gender in the Experience and Expression of Emotion  Emotions stereotypically more displayed by women- happiness, sadness, disgust, fear, and surprise  Women- powerless emotions; Men- power emotions  Plant, Hyde, Keltner, & Devine (2000)- participants tended to interpret women’s reactions as sadness rather than anger and had trouble seeing women as angry, even when their emotions were obviously angry.  Parmley & Cunningham (2008)- preschool children tended to interpret women’s responses as indicating sadness, but in men, same responses interpreted as anger  Paul Ekman and display rules o Display rules: overlearned habits about who can show what emotion to whom and when they can show it o Feeling one emotion, but possibly masking it or displaying another emotion entirely o Simon & Nath (2004)- women and men experience emotions w/ similar frequencies, but kinds of emotions differed between the sexes  Men experienced more positive emotions (excitement and calm)  Women experienced more negative emotions (anxiety and sadness)  No difference in anger- doesn’t match with higher rates of crime among men  Women who lived w/ young children experienced more negative emotions than those that did not- inconsistent w/ stereotype of maternal instinct The Myth of Maternal Instinct  Origins of biological basis of maternal instinct go back to Charles Darwin- evolutionary account; energies go towards reproduction and caregiving, not towards intelligence  However, paternal instinct can factor into some relationships- differences for paternal involvement vary across species  Evidence from various studies w/ primates doesn’t support theory of maternal instinct (and paternal disinterest)  Researchers tend to avoid research in this area and have trouble accepting their own observations  Maternal Deprivation and Its Consequences for Nurturing o Harlow’s attachment studies (1971)- experience of maternal deprivation (on rhesus monkeys) had permanent negative effects on their social and sexual behavior  Maternally deprived female monkeys became horrible mothers themselves o Harlow (1959)- Wire mother vs. cloth mother  Postulated that monkeys needed contact comfort- security provided by physical contact with a soft, caring, or comforting object- because they preferred to spend more time with the cloth mother  But, monkeys still didn’t grow up normal o Additional research showed that contact w/ other monkeys helps infant monkeys learn how to be nurturant- Harlow and Harlow (1962) Type of deprivation Adequacy of nurturing No deprivation- contact with mother Normal and peers Complete isolation Inadequate and abusive Wire or cloth mother Inadequate Contact with mother only Inadequate Contact with peers but not with Normal mother  Demonstrated that maternal behavior isn’t the product of instinct in monkeys; other research has confirmed these findings in nonhuman primates and rats Attachment  Concept of attachment originated w/ John Bowlby- not restricted to mother-infant attachment; can be with anyone who happens to be present during the critical time period  Concept of bonding- depends on innate components that are known to occur in early interaction between infant and caregiver o First few hours after birth are not magical period for attachment Gender and Caring for Children  Women are usually primary caregivers for children  Association with caregiving for children is basis for classification of women as more nurturant than women  Gender differences in responsiveness to babies appear by 3 yrs of age and increase throughout childhood- due to parental and social encouragement  Boys may be as nurturant as girls, but in different ways- still like to care for pets (Melson, 2011)  Although fathers tripled the time they spent in child care between 1965 and 2000, the manner in which they interact w/ kids is much the same- Fathers are just helpers and playmates  Within the context of these differences, men’s experience is more positive than women’s  Men have few models for being involved fathers, and at odds for the societal expectations of masculinity  Caring for children leads to feelings of both satisfaction and dissatisfaction in women o Satisfaction- experience of involvement in parenting; societal value of nurturing children o Dissatisfaction- loss of freedom; irritation of taking care of small children; fathers didn’t participate as much as mothers wanted them to  Gay fathers experience child care w/ gender factor removed- majority of these are men who have fathered children in heterosexual relationships  These men are highly motivated to become fathers and place high emphasis on relationships with their children; also divide child care more evenly than heterosexual couples  Heterosexual fathers who participated in care of their children also revealed feelings of satisfaction and frustration  Social forces work to prevent fathers from becoming intimately involved with their children- male breadwinner role  Children, mothers, and fathers can all benefit from positive involvement by fathers in their children’s lives The Prominence of Male Aggression  Aggression as also been attributed to instinct  Evolutionary advantage for male aggression- defending and hunting  Relational aggression and social aggression: have been applied to behaviors that harm others through damage to personal relationships, such as sulking, group exclusion, or silent treatment  Indirect aggression: applied to harm created through indirect means, such as arranging for someone to be blamed for a serious mistake at work  Anger and aggression o Anger is internal emotion; aggression is behavioral reaction o Peterson & Biggs, 2001- five year old boys were most likely to label anger in emotional situations, and both girls and boys were more likely to label anger than any other emotion o Some studies show no gender differences in self-reports of anger in children up to grade 5 o Self-reports of anger in adults have revealed little gender difference, too o Targets of anger varied by gender and relationship with angry person, however  Ex: women in countries w/ greater gender inequality were more often angry w/ strangers than people w/ whom they had close relationships  In general, women experienced more anger in egalitarian societies (where anger is an emotion of the powerful) o For women, crying is a common expression of em
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