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Chapter 5

Psyc 350 Chapter 5.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 350
Jason Winters

Psyc 350 Chapter 5: 131-144 Beauty - Physical appearance are usually the first cues to attractiveness that are available to others - Masculinity – femininity o Women typically have fuller lips and larger eyes than men, while men have wider jaws and noses and larger chins o Viewers of an experiment consistently moved the computer generated image of the face in the direction of the “Hyper feminine” face, explaining that why most women want to look more attractive use cosmetics to increase their feminine look o Women’s attraction to masculine-looking faces varies around their menstrual cycle - Baby-face-ness o Research at Germany found that the attractiveness of the adult face image was progressively increasing as it started to morph toward the standard childlike face o Suggests that the main features of children’s faces that enhance the attractiveness of adult women’s faces are the low position of the facial features on the head, a prominent forehead, large eyes, and a small nose o i.e., female adults with baby face features like are more likely to be rated more attractive o Baby-face-ness doesn’t increase attractiveness of male faces, but it has a disarming effect that can increase likability of them in some circumstances o Northwestern: male AA CEOs tend to have baby-face features - Symmetry o The more symmetrical a person’s face, the more attractive sexy and healthy the person seems to others o Symmetry also raises the attractiveness of the remainder of the body, too. o Evolutionary psychologist  Propose that asymmetry is unattractive because people with asymmetry had a messed up genetic program that interfered with the genes or caused it to be infected  Research supports the notion that people with asymmetrical features are more likely to suffer from a variety of disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, premature birth) - Cultural influence o Slimness-fatness is an important dimension influencing judgments of attractiveness, especially women’s o By the BMI standard, nearly half of U.S. women are overweight or obese (F in 20s) o Subjects in the US and other Western countries prefer women with BMI around 18-22 o Cross cultural differences  Rural Zulus in South Africa gave high ratings to women with BMI of >20 o However, Zulus that migrated to UK also rated women with <20 BMI as more beautiful, suggesting that BMI rating is influenced by culture o Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) o It is hard to rate beauty just looking at WHR alone, most also look in complement to BMI o Some studies reveal that men only prefer large breast in combination with narrow waist o For men, wide shoulders and well-developed pectoral muscles increase women’s ratings o Misperceptions  Men tend to think that extreme muscularity is the most attractive to women, but in fact most women prefer only moderate muscularity  The breast size preferred by men is not nearly as large as the breast size that women think that men prefer o West Africa Mali: do not place much emphasis on breast as sexually attractive o People generally find faces of individuals from their own ethnic group more attractive than faces from other groups  Reflects influence of familiarity and culture, and cultural influence o Even newborn infants spend more time looking at the picture of the more attractive face o Men generally prefer younger women, because they’re more fertile and can spend more time nurturing children o Suma people of central Africa: pierce and insert long plates to their lower lip for beauty o The process of judging visual attractiveness is a largely un
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