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2 & 3 - Anatomy & Physiology (Lecture + Textbook).docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 350
Professor
Jason Winters
Semester
Winter

Description
Ch 23AnatomyPhysiology Psychology 350A 001FEMALE ANATOMYPHYSIOLOGY External Organs VulvaExternal genitaliasexual structures on the outside of the body o Female vulva o Male penisscrotumMany women may have incorrect lacking understanding of their external genitalia partially due to societal norms not to learn about them o Vaginamuscular tube extending 34 inches from vestibule to uterine cervix The VulvaVulvascientific term to describe entire female external genital areaPad of fatty tissue covered by pubic hair o Cushion for pubic areapubic bone during sex o Vajazzlingshaving then putting plastic jewelsHair helps vaporize odours caused by specialized sweat glands o Odourspheromones chemical attractants Mons o May be visual trigger for arousal in some cases 4Mons Veneris young women remove some or all pubic hair5o Aesthetically more attractive eg none or certain shapesdesigns o Other cultures see a lot of pubic hair as attractiveHair removal regardless of methodology causes inflammationirritation of hair follicles wo Shaveless chance of problems if shavinghair direction o Trimming doesnt really cause problems2 folds of skin extending down from mons on either side of the vulva Labia MajoraPadded with fatty tissuehairy on surfaces near the thighs Outer LipsSkin is often darker than the other parts of the vulvaHighly sensitive like the mons b 2 thin folds of hairless sensitive skin lyinglabia majora twno Sometimes only visible after parting labia majora protrude to differing degreesSmall labia minora culture exists in USA o Appearance is highly variable Labia MinoraPart at front to form clitoral hoodtouch near midlineenclose the vestibule Inner Lips o Clitoral Hoodlook fold of skin covering the clitoris bo Vestibulepotential spaceleftright labia minora twnw Multiple structures lieclitoris urethral opening vaginal opening in Vasocongestionprocess of labia minora swellingdarkening due to pooling of blood w the skin inClitoris see belowTHE CLITORISClitoriserectile organ in females external portion is located at junction of labia minora in front of vestibule o Glansterminal knobexternal portion of clitoris or penisSize of a pearlCovered or partially covered by clitoral hoodErectile tissue comprised of 1 corpus spongiosum spongy body w Corpus spongiosumeither of 2 elongated erectile structurespenisclitoris ino Shaft1 or 23cm long and runs from glans underneath the hoodCannot be directly seen but feltErectile tissue comprised of 2 corpora cavernosa cavernous bodies lying side by sideCorpus spongiosumsingle midline erectile structure fills glans in both sexes o In malesextends backwards along underside of penis surrounding urethra o Both parts are erectilebecome largerfirmer during arousalErectilecapable of erectionSecretions from underside of clitoral hood lubricate the motion of the hood over the clitoris o Smegmawhitish greasy secretion hat builds up under hood of clitoris or penis foreskinMade from combination of drying up secretions dead cells bacteria w May be removedprevented from collecting by pulling back hoodgently washingsoapy waterCrus CruraInternal extensions of corpus cavernosa of clitorispenis o Diverge backwardsdownwards from clitoral shaftprovides the wishbone structure 1Page Ch 23AnatomyPhysiology Psychology 350A 001 Vestibular bulbserectile structures internal to the labia minora on either side of vestibule o Considered as internal portions of the clitoris o Erection of bulbs helps lengthenstiffen vagina2 muscles associated with clitoris ischiocavernosus musclebulbospongiosus muscle o Ischiocavernosus musclemuscle that attaches to internal portions of the penisclitoris surrounds each of the crus of the clitorisAssists erectionin men ejaculation Contraction causes glans to disappear under clitoral hood o Bulbospongiosus muscleattaches to base of penisclitorisAssists erectionin men ejaculationInternal portion of muscle in women surrounds the introitusForms a sling around the clitoral shaftruns downwardbackward to surround vaginal openingContraction tightens opening increases clitoral erection and may aid increasing sensations of penetration transferring mechanical excitation to clitorisSupplied especially glans supplied by large number of sensory nerve fibres o Function is to produce sexual pleasure o Stimulationmost reliable mechanism for orgasmExtremely sensitivepreference for diffuse or indirect stimulationDuring arousal clitoris swellsbecomes erect o Shaftfirmermore easily felt glansremains softShaft surrounded by touch connective tissue restricting expansionGlans free to expand o Process of erection involves shaft glans crura vestibular bulbsGlans is visible while nonaroused but may disappear during erectionarousal o Sexual stimulation may be via the hood indirectlyVariation in what is the desired type of stimulation o More sensitive when erect vs flaccidMany times function of clitoris is unknown to women andor not mentioned in sex ed o Female circumcisionany of several ritualistic cuttingexcision of parts of the female genitaliaRemoval of clitoris is many times central to this procedure o Piercing as a form of selfexpression in USASelfadornment enhance stimulation spiritual actNeed to be very carefultake good care of hygiene else infection VAGINAL OPENING INTRIOTUSOccupies rear portion of the vestibuleUsually covered by incomplete membrane of skin hymen o Hymenusually perforate or incomplete membrane that covers the opening of the vaginaMay be perforated by first coitus or for other reasons eg tampon stretching from exerciseSometimes it is imperforate rarely and causes a problem with menstrual dischargeWill have to be surgically opened to prevent infectionallow menstrual flowCommonly it will have several openings o Annularsmall hole in hymen wo Septatehymen1 strip of skin in the middle o Cribriformfairly solid with some scattered perforationsholes o Parousfew remnants of hymen visible happens after childbirth st May tearbleed after 1 intercoursevirginity mythHymen is not a reliable indicator o May be ruptured accidentally exercise nonexistent tamponMiddle Eastern countries it is a tradition to show bloodstained sheets as an indication of virginitymarriage consummationTo prevent any unwelcome possibilities may supply vial of chicken bloodSometimes people undergo hymen reconstruction premarriage to prove virginityPerineumregion of skin between the anusscrotumvulva o Highly sensitive o Bacteria can spread from anus to vaginaurethra via perineum therefore wipe backwardsOther muscles of the pelvic floor have important functions during sex o Pelvic floor musclesmuscular sling that underliessupports pelvic organs ie PC muscles o Steady contraction of said muscles stiffens walls of vagina during sexsensations KegelsExercise of pubococcygeus PC muscles muscle floor of vagina 2Page
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