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SOCI 100_TEXTBOOK NOTES WEEK 1-8

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCI 100
Professor
Keith Preston
Semester
Fall

Description
SOCI 100- Textbook Notes! Ch.1  Introducing Sociology Sociology: the systematic study of social behaviour, or the study of society. Societies: the largest-scale human group, whose members interact with one another, share a common geographic territory, and share common institutions. Macrosociology: the study of social institutions (i.e. roman catholic church or marriage) and large social groups (ethnic minorities and college students) Microsociology: the study of the processes and patterns of personal interaction that take place among people within groups. Sociology imagination: an approach to sociology that situates the personal experiences of individuals within the societal context with these experiences occur Social institutions: one kind of social structure, made up of a number of relationships. People use institutions to achieve their intended goals, as students use schools, or patients use hospitals. Role: the expected pattern of interaction with others. Critical theory: - basic division between society’s “haves” and “have-nots” - Always about unequal distribution of power - Domination of one group by another (i.e. the bourgeoise (owners) vs. the proletariat (working class) - Also focuses on contending ‘status groups’ (i.e. men vs. women/ and ethnic groups)  struggles of domination Symbolic interactionism: - Focuses on small group interactions - Glue that holds people together in social relationships - Labelling theory -  interaction: the process, by which, and manner in which, social actors- people trying to meet each other’s expectations - Relate to each other, especially in face-to-face - Symbolic interactionism: sees a product of face-to-face interaction between people using symbols Feminist theories: - (sort of a branch from critical theory) focuses on relations of inequality- relations of dominance and subordination between men and women. - Gender based in equality make women’s lives different from mens. - Feminism is the view that domination of women is not a result of biological determination but is a result of socio-economic and ideological factors. - Uses both micro and macrosociology = stresses that personal lives political issues are intertwined. Postmodern theories: = an attack on modernism Modern functionalism: - Presents society as a set of interconnected elements that operate together to maintain the overall stability and efficiency of the society - Each part of society contributes to the whole and keeps it in equilibrium. CHAPTER SUMMARY: - 3 founding theoretical approaches that can/do coexist together: o Functional theory o Critical theory o Symbolic interactionism CH.2  Material Settings POPULATION Functionalism/ functional analysis: - It is concerned with the conditions that maintain social equilibrium and the dangers associated with losing equilibrium (i.e. war, famine, and epidemic) - EXAMPLE: Thomas Malthus (1798) regards to population issues food available vs. population o Positive checks  famine, wars, disease= prevents overpopulation o Preventative checks  abortion, infanticide, delayed marriage= prevent over population Demography: the study of human populations, their growth and decline through births, deaths and migration. Critical Theory: - Sociologists says: people in power take actions that benefit themselves the most and support theories that justify their actions - Arguments about ‘overpopulation’: problems poor countries face result not from overpopulation but from unfair distribution of the world’s wealth. o Improper land use, civil war, other social/ political factors - Modernization= balance of less deaths and less births - ZPG (zero population growth)= occurs when births are exactly balanced by deaths (population remains constant) URBAN LIFE Functionalism: - View social problems in the city as resulting naturally from growth and specialization. - Others (functionalists) focus on those tendencies of the city that promote social disorganization, weak social controls, and consequent deviance and distress - ‘they’ look at for universal laws of social development and for the ways that particular institutions or arrangements (cities) help society move to a new equilibrium, with a higher level of functioning. Critical theory: - Always ask whose interests are served by the actions of the dominant groups in society and their ideologies - Urban problems (homelessness/ poverty)= working of capitalism - Cities suffer urban problems because no powerful group is interested in preventing this - Economic inequality  unequal distribution of urban wealth and poverty Symbolic Interactionism: - Studies how people experience city life on an everyday basis - ‘they’ doubt that everyone in the same structural setting (i.e. cities) has the same experience. - Focuses on the meaning of life in different groups and subcultures. - Subcultures: ethnic groups, youth gangs, emos etc. ENVIRONMENT Functionalism: - Recognize everybody is implicated in the pollution of the environment - Several types of cultural ideologies: o (1) cornucopia view of nature: views nature as a storehouse of resources that only exists for the use of humans o (2) growth ethic (similar to materialism): celebrates, the imagined, ability of technology to easily solve all and any problems the world has. o (3) individualism: privileges personal goals and desires. Over co
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